George Lucas Educational Foundation
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My Catholic school third grade teacher was extremely tough on me. Her biggest gripe was my handwriting, which looks more like an EKG scan than penmanship. For years, I harbored not-so-fond memories of her, but now I know that her strictness about penmanship was actually helping my brain develop. Recently, scientists have shown that longhand writing benefits the brain.

Today, cursive writing is becoming a lost art as note taking with laptops becomes more and more prominent in classrooms. But what we are losing is much bigger than a few scratches on a page -- we are losing a robust way of learning.

There has been much debate on the use of laptops for note taking in classrooms. The pro side sees laptops as an efficient way of collecting and storing information. The con side sees laptops as an opportunity for distractions and multitasking. What's missing is an understanding of how taking notes by longhand influences the brain. Recent studies have shown that students taking notes with laptops performed worse on conceptual questions than the students taking notes by longhand. In short, they had the information on their computers, but did not have an understanding of that information in their brains.

So in this age of technology, I'm suggesting that students take notes with paper and pen. It's a crazy idea, but hear me out.

A Plea for Penmanship

When students take notes with their laptops, they tend to mindlessly transcribe the data word for word, like speech-to-text software. But taking notes verbatim is not the point. What is lacking in their note-taking-by-laptop is the synthesis, the re-framing, and the understanding of the information. Students that transcribe with laptops have shallow connections to what's being presented to them. However, those who are taking notes by hand are processing the information and representing it in a way that makes sense to them. They are learning.

Now, I'll be the first to say that longhand writing is so 19th century. But we need to answer a question: do we want students to have a deep or shallow connection to the information we're giving them? While we live in a world of short sound bytes where news is thrown at us unprocessed, this should not be the mode for schools. In the 21st century, the ability to connect knowledge in new ways is more important than the knowledge itself. So students with deeper connections to information can link it in new ways -- they can create.

The Pen is Mightier

All this begs the question of how we can incorporate longhand in a digital age. What about a daily notebook, written by hand?

A lost art in the world of science is the lab notebook. In it, scientists write down observations, impressions, and all the variables and outcomes of an experiment. If you are teaching STEM classes, might I suggest that you resurrect the lab notebook and have students personalize it? Give them assignments where they have to hand-draw pictures of what they see and what they predict. Let them figure out how to visually represent these things -- without digital pictures, by the way. The data says that taking images with a camera does not improve one's memory either, so these notebook entries must be written or drawn. Skill doesn't matter. What we are fostering are experiential links in a child's brain, and one of the best pathways is through their fingers.

If you are not teaching STEM classes, have students carry a personal notebook in which they write down observations and draw things by hand on whatever topic. We are trying to create more connections to information, and developing fine motor skills along the way.

If you have a classroom with lots of technology, try to integrate note taking. Often when I give my PowerPoint slides to students, I pass out a version that doesn't have all the information that students are seeing on the screen, which means that they need to fill it in by hand. And when I glance over their notes, I see how their work doesn't always look the same. This is great because my students are doing the most important thing we can teach them -- they are learning how to teach themselves.

So let us not confuse efficiency with the real goal of teaching. Teaching is not a job of cramming as much as we can into a brain. It is about learning. And getting students to learn means that we must use every pathway to connect them with the information. Using laptops reinforces the Industrial Revolution ideal that every kid should get the information in the same way, and that it should come out the same way. But by occasionally replacing the laptop with a pen, learning happens, which is why we got into this business in the first place.

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Kate Gladstone's picture

As far as I've been able to discover, the studies of handwriting versus keyboarding haven't found a difference in benefits among the different KINDS of handwriting (cursive versus the several other kinds). This hasn't stopped several promoters of cursive from altering the research results when they wanted to -- in sworn testimony to legislatures, and elsewhere -- when they figured out that altering/misrepresenting the research results would help in getting the results that the promoters wanted (such as supporting bills to mandate cursive in states/school districts where the cursive promoter had some kind of government position or appointment, or states/districts where a government person was being supplied with information -- including misrepresentations -- by promoters of cursive).
Some recent and consequential instances of this will soon be covered on the HBO news program "LAST WEEK TONIGHT with John Oliver" -- Sunday, November 2 at 11 PM (Eastern time) -- no matter what you think about cursive, prepare to be truly amazed ...

Marilyn Yung's picture
Marilyn Yung
Middle School Language Arts Teacher

Thanks for your informative post. I have several sixth-grade students who ask me often if they can produce a handwritten assignment on their Chromebook laptop instead because "I can't write very well." And we're talking print handwriting! I just tell them, "We're in school to practice, so no, please use a pencil. You can do it!" For cursive practice, my students transcribe a printed inspirational quote into cursive at the beginning of each class. There were a few complaints at first, but no longer. I just see cursive as another skill for them to be proud of.

Kate Gladstone's picture

What I find working well, in the situation you describe, is to have these kids do the assignment in two steps: first, do it on their laptops BUT THEN transcribe the "laptop draft" into handwriting and submit only the handwritten one (If they want to skip that extra step/extra draft, they have to write it by hand from the get-go. After a few such rounds of handwriting what they had typed, they are A LOT better at handwriting "from their heads" rather than from a typescript.) To teach cursive reading, I use the free iPad app "Read Cursive."

Marilyn Yung's picture
Marilyn Yung
Middle School Language Arts Teacher

Thanks, Kate, for your suggestion. I'm currently trying your idea with two students and look forward to the results!

Marilyn Yung's picture
Marilyn Yung
Middle School Language Arts Teacher

Just updating you, Kate, on the project we discussed previously... Both students were appreciative of being able to keyboard/type their first drafts. Following this, they then copied the drafts in cursive. No complaints and both did an excellent job. It's too bad that the year drew to a close and I wasn't able to see the benefit of this approach on subsequent assignments. However, I will use this approach again next year for these two in particular. Since I teach in a small middle school, I will fortunately learn with these two students for their 7th and 8th grade years! Thank you for your idea and insight!

miamirealestate's picture

One of the most effective ways to study and retain new information is to rewrite your notes by hand.

Kate Gladstone's picture

Thanks for letting me know that my suggestion worked well for your students. Can you please let me know ent you required that the handwriting be done in cursive?

Yanglish's picture

" But what we are losing is much bigger than a few scratches on a page -- we are losing a robust way of learning."

You are saying everything my heart feels. I share your thoughts exactly.

Marilyn Yung's picture
Marilyn Yung
Middle School Language Arts Teacher

I assigned the writing to be done in cursive simply as a skill-building exercise. About one-third enjoy writing in cursive and take pride in their handwriting. Another third write in cursive simply because I request it, but don't seem to care either way. The other third grudgingly write in cursive because they really struggle with it. For those, we just acknowledge that it's a skill that takes practice to improve --- like any skill. As a result, their cursive and the speed at which they write it increase over the course of the year. On a side note, students also practice writing their cursive signature everyday. I play up having a unique, distinctive signature that they can be proud of. They compliment each other on their signatures and also note how their signatures sometimes reflect their personalities.

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