It's almost summer, which, depending on where on the planet you live, probably means it's warming at least a little. Coinciding with this warming trend and a general flowering of the land is a break in our processes of formal education. School's out. And just as summer brings fairs and vacations and skateboard tricks, it also brings sunburns and mosquitos and skinned knees -- and summer learning loss and its great propagator, summer reading loss.
With so much else to do, and a subsequent loss of academic structure, most research shows that children read less in the summer. How much less they read depends on age, income level, geographical region, and other factors.
And how much of a bad thing you think it is for a student's achievement scores to fall because of summer break depends on your perspective, too. But let's assume that you're in favor of pushing academic achievement and the improved test scores that seem to reflect it. What do you need to know?
What the Test Scores Reveal
Well, first a glance at the research. As with many topics in education, there are always wildly varying research findings to support an equally wider variety of interpretations and takeaways. Want to fund a 1:1 program? Somewhere there's research to support it. Against that idea? There's likely data somewhere that agrees with you. But in general, the research on summer reading loss says one of two things:
- Summer does tend to reduce academic achievement.
- What it impacts and how depends on content area, income level, age, and more.
For example, in The Effects of Summer Vacation on Achievement Test Scores: A Narrative and Meta-Analytic Review, researchers concluded that:
[T]he summer loss equaled about one month on a grade-level equivalent scale, or one tenth of a standard deviation relative to spring test scores. The effect of summer break was more detrimental for math than for reading and most detrimental for math computation and spelling.
But complicating general statements about seasonal changes on educational performance and literacy are socioeconomic concerns. The authors in this study claim that:
[S]ignificant difference was also found for income level on the effect of summer vacation on reading recognition scores; low-income students showed a significant loss in reading recognition over summer while middle-income students showed a significant gain . . . [M]iddle-income students gained about 2.3 months in reading recognition over summer, while lower-income students lost about 1.5 months.
And grade level? Other studies have found that younger students (e.g., in kindergarten) often have better scores in the fall than in the spring, while older elementary students (e.g., fourth and fifth grade) reverse that trend. "Summer setback," then, isn't a simple issue, complicating efforts to make simple recommendations.
Learning and Applying
In my post Stopping the Summer Slide in English Language Arts, I provided basic recommendations, from starting digital book clubs to sending home high-interest texts, or even simply staying in touch as often as possible with students through email or social media. How useful these ideas are depends on how old your students are, their relative access to technology, whether or not they're on vacation, your amount of free time, and more.
One of the most universal patterns of learning in any context is to encounter a new idea, and then put that idea into action somehow, whether through near transfer or far. A daily pattern of reading and then doing something as the result of that reading can provide an easy framework for authentic learning outside of the classroom. Reading Robert Frost? Extract a theme from "Mending Wall," and do something with it. Say hello to a neighbor. Tear down a metaphorical wall between you and an old friend or family member. Make a painting of a wall that conveys Frost's message. Create a song that is the opposite in tone but the same in theme. Create a fence to set a boundary in a relationship.
In other words, read something worth reading, think about what you’ve read, and then use that reading to inform your behavior in the real world in a way that's authentic and useful to you. Does what you're learning have any transferability in your life? I don't mean transfer in the sense of applying something that you've learned in a new and unfamiliar context, but rather taking something that you've learned here and applying it there. Actually use what you've learned -- in this case, what you've read. This will require you to reflect on what you've learned, have a sense of the utility of that knowledge, demonstrate vision, imagination, or creativity in putting it to use, and so on.
This stands in marked contrast to the "long-tail" view that traditional academics take for standard-creation and curriculum design, where the value of what's learned is low at the onset, and is perceived to increase over time as students prepare to enter universities or the work force.
Place-based education. Self-directed learning. Maker education. Open-ended projects. Personal challenges. The roots of every student lie in his or her community, in the families, digital networks, and favored communities. Summer is a time when students have more of an opportunity to be closer to these roots. Reducing summer loss might begin, then, with helping them see what they have to gain during this time away from the classroom by seeking out and using information to improve their crucially native circumstances.
Please share your observations about and solutions for summer loss in the comments below.