George Lucas Educational Foundation
Response to Intervention

Response to Intervention: Resources for Educators

Explore resources to help understand, implement, or refine Response to Intervention.

December 30, 2015 Updated April 8, 2016
Image of students walking in a school hallway
Photo credit: Justin S. Campbell via flickr (CC BY-ND 2.0)

Over the past decade, Response to Intervention (RTI) has seen widespread use in schools as an effective way to promote student learning. Originally developed to help students with learning disabilities, RTI’s success has led to its use for all students at a school, not just for those with specialized needs. The approach has several key components:

  • Multi-tiered instruction: All students receive Tier 1 support. Students that need additional help (typically about 15 percent of students) also receive Tier 2 support in small groups. About five percent of students receive intensive, one-on-one, Tier 3 support.
  • Ongoing assessment: All students undergo regular monitoring to determine whether they need Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3 support.
  • Collaborative decision-making: Schools often use a team of educators (such as general education teachers, learning specialists, and school counselors) to make decisions about what supports a student may need. Parents are also heavily involved.

RTI models vary across schools and states. Also known as Response to Instruction and Intervention (RTII), which emphasizes research-based instruction at its core, RTI is often paired with Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS), which supports students’ emotional needs. More recently, Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) is being used as an umbrella term that includes academic, behavioral, social, and emotional supports for students.

Getting Started With RTI

  • State/local departments of education are excellent sources for RTI information. Visit the California Department of Education, the Texas Education Agency, and the New York City Department of Education to learn more.
  • What Is Response to Intervention?: Explore resources for RTI based on whole-class, small-group, or individual support. (ASCD)
  • Getting Started Guide: Learn more about the various phases of RTI implementation, from building support to developing and evaluating your program. (RTI Action Network)
  • RTI Fact Sheet: Use this one-page PDF to help explain RTI to teachers, parents, and community members. (New Mexico Public Education Department, 2009)
  • Using an RTI Framework to Improve Student Learning (PDF): Read this pocket guide to learn how using a research-based RTI framework can improve learning for all students, particularly in low-performing schools and those with large achievement gaps. (American Institutes for Research, 2013)
  • Ask the Expert: Watch over two dozen videos with expert answers for commonly asked questions such as, "How does the RTI Framework intersect with the Common Core State Standards Initiative?" (Center on Response to Intervention)

Implementing RTI at Your School

Assessing Student Learning


Reaching Out to Parents

Resources for Funding RTI


The Research Behind RTI

  • Research Spotlight on RTI: Dig into an overview of the research on RTI, and learn more about the essential components of a successful program. (National Education Association)
  • Research Support for RTI: Learn about effective RTI implementation, including efficacy studies as well as best practices. (RTI Action Network)
  • Study: RTI Practice Falls Short of Promise: Read about research that found how RTI may not be as effective for first-grade students as initially thought. (EdWeek, 2015)


Downloads and Examples From Schools That Work

Safe Spaces for Math and Literacy

At Charles R. Drew Charter School, the Literacy Center and Math Lab provide fun, engaging, and enriching interventions to help support students most in need.


Meeting Students at Their Learning Ability

Learn how educators at Meyer Elementary School support student needs and growth through their RTI program.

MTSS: Reaching All High School Students

P.K. Yonge uses Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) to meet the learning needs of its high school students. MTSS is similar to RTI, with an added emphasis on behavioral support. Check out a few of P.K. Yonge's MTSS teacher tools:

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Filed Under

  • Response to Intervention
  • Assessment