A Little Help With Your Homework
If you’re assigning the same homework to all of your students, you may not be helping them reach their full potential. Consider this scenario: Marly and Evan are in the same math class, but they’re having very different experiences with homework. Marly completes most of her work in a few minutes. After all, she already knows how to divide fractions. Evan, however, spends an hour and a half struggling through work he doesn’t understand. After several meltdowns (by both Evan and his mother), he finishes. He’s still not sure if he’s on the right track.
This scene is, of course, nothing new. We know that one-size-fits-all homework doesn’t work any better than undifferentiated classwork. In fact, it’s usually worse, since there’s no teacher around to help. Yet there’s no way that teachers have time to create multiple homework assignments, tailored to the needs of each student.
Fortunately, there’s a way we can offer students more appropriately differentiated learning tasks for homework while not crushing ourselves with work. The key is to share some of the responsibility for and control over homework with students. Teachers help guide students and set up open-ended possibilities. Students then choose the best personal fit, self-differentiating their work.
A Few Key Ideas About Homework
Before we dig into how we can use choice as a vehicle for differentiated homework, let’s first be clear about a few principles of effective homework in general.
- Focus on reinforcement. Use homework to practice and review skills learned in class. Students should be able to do homework independently. Keep homework skill-based, simple, and brief. Big projects and work requiring complex thinking belong in school, where skilled teachers can guide and support students’ learning.
- Keep homework review light. When homework is about practice and reinforcement, there’s no need to spend lots of time correcting or assessing it. Especially when homework is more individualized, it makes less sense to go over assignments in class. Instead, you might have students circle one example they want you to look at, or they might each share an example they tried with a partner.
- Structure homework around time, not quantity. Instead of assigning all students the same number of examples to complete, assign all students the same amount of time to work. For example, instead of requiring all students to complete 10 multiplication problems, you might have all students practice multiplication for 15 minutes.
Use Choice to Help Students Self-Differentiate
In a typical model of differentiation, teachers create multiple activities and group students according to their needs, abilities, or interests. This puts unrealistic demands on teachers and is imperfect at best—some students still end up working on assignments that are too hard or too easy for them. Instead, we can offer students choices about their work, and help them learn how to choose appropriately challenging work for themselves.
For example, instead of assigning the same 20 problems to all students, Marly and Evan’s teacher could have said, “Spend 15 minutes practicing some problems tonight. You may use the ones on page 113, or you can make up some of your own. See if you can find or create problems that give you a little bit of a challenge but that you can still solve independently.” In this way, both Marly and Evan could meet their needs as learners—spending more time in their just-right learning zone. This can be especially beneficial for struggling students like Evan, since he’ll get the practice he needs to gradually solve harder and harder problems over time, instead of being frustrated and giving up early on.
Here are a few strategies for making homework more effective:
- Teach students how to choose well. Brainstorm strategies as a class. Have students share ideas together. Create an anchor chart together. Practice choosing homework in class before students head home—don’t assume that students know how to choose well.
- Offer good choices. Make sure that options for homework focus on the skills being practiced and are open-ended enough for all students to be successful.
- Use resources you already have. Though offering choice might sometimes involve creating a couple of different resources, you might be able to use what you already have. Use the math book, reading anthology, or other textbook and give choices within that text.
- Ask students for ideas about homework. Students will often come up with great ideas for ways to reinforce learning at home. Simply ask the question, “What are some ideas for how you might practice this skill at home?” and see what they come up with.
- Make homework itself a choice. Do all students need to practice a skill? If not, you might keep homework invitational: “If you think a little more practice tonight would help you solidify your learning, here are some examples you might try…”
Here are some other examples of how traditional homework assignments might be redesigned to help students self-differentiate their work:
There are plenty of different opinions out there about homework, and John Hattie, among others, has shown that there are limits to its effectiveness. So let’s use it as an opportunity to share some power and control with students, helping them practice in ways that best meet their needs while also boosting their sense of agency and ownership about learning.
To learn more about how to use choice to boost engagement and help students self-differentiate their learning, check out Mike Anderson’s Learning to Choose, Choosing to Learn.
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I know what you mean, Beckett. I've spent waaaaay too much time as a teacher coming up with elaborate homework. Sometimes it's the simplest ideas that can be the most beneficial!
An issue with homework is the difference in how the subjects are taught and how those at home (parents, tutors, siblings, etc.) understand how to do it, even among adults who have a college education, didn't finish college or have a high school diploma. The teacher who taught the lessons are not there to help students with the homework so its up to the students and anyone who is willing to help them do it. It is supposed to be practice that drives learning and familiarity with the ideas, concepts, strategies, methods, etc. but if you did not understand things in class to begin with (doesn't mean you can't understand it eventually or with a different approach) then you may not know how to do the homework as the textbook wants you to or the teacher says you need to do it.
I couldn't agree more, Larry. Whatever homework is assigned needs to be independent work. Even as a teacher, I can't help my children when they are struggling with their homework--no more than one of their teachers could support my kids in cleaning their rooms!
Many of the students in today's day and age are also brought up by grandparents. As teachers is seems ridiculous that we are expecting grandparents to help students with their homework outside of class when sometimes the information is not easily understood by some parents. Furthermore, although some grandparents may understand their homework, it is evident that as teachers we are asking much of our students to have to complete homework without someone to guide them in the right direction.
I also have the problem of parents coming in the following day after homework has been sent out to explain to me how their child was not listening to them explain how to get a math answer. Students learn one way in class with the teacher, yet at home they are seeing the problem explained in a whole new light., thus thinking this is incorrect. On the other hand, there are also parents who complete the homework for the child, which leaves the children still not understanding the academic information.
Right on, Amanda. If students will need guidance, coaching, or support with homework, it's too hard. Teachers should be the ones guiding, supporting, and coaching students...which means that work needs to stay at school. Only independent work (reading, simple practice, games to reinforce skills/understanding) is appropriate for students to do at home!
Mike, I agree with you one hundred per cent on this last answer!
As a teacher, I always aimed my homework to be understood by the students disregarding who is (or isn't) at home. I think that relying on the students being assisted at home by a parent or grandparent leads ultimately to over-dependence and loss of the students' autonomy; not to mention that in certain cultures it could drive straight to 'spoon-feeding' them or even doing their homework for them ... :-(
And, of course, Apostolos, that's just what happens--in many cases it's the parents who do homework for their kids. If we give homework, we should err on the side of work that's too easy...work that we know students can do independently. Or, we might offer "invitations to continue learning"--extensions that kids could take on if they'd like to keep exploring the work we're doing in class but not that's assigned, assessed, or graded.
Would you believe that in Greece there are 'educational institutes' that specialize in preparing high school and university 'projects' for students either too indifferent or too weak to do them themselves? And that there are parents are willing to pay for that?
It's a sad truth! That's why I encourage many of my students to leave and study abroad where academic standards are more safe-guarded.
Ugh. It's like people have decided that the work itself is more important than the skills, habits, mindsets, and social-emotional competencies of students! What if we started viewing the content and school work as a means to an end instead of the end itself?
Learned a lot from this!
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