George Lucas Educational Foundation
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As a result of literature circles being integrated into my fourth-grade class' weekly routines, students independently read books of their choosing on a regular basis, and any collaboration they had regarding these books was mostly facilitated by them.

Here's a glimpse into my fourth-grade classroom, and one way to run (almost) paperless literature circles.


I divided my 29 students into six groups, and the students were allowed to decide with whom they worked. Throughout the year, each group read chapter books of their choosing, one after the other. All of the paperless work was completed in Schoology, our learning management system (LMS).

The students met for literature circles twice a week -- Mondays and Fridays -- for about 40 minutes per session. Here's what happened on each of those days.


All six groups met, with four in the classroom and two in the hallway. After the groups came together, students confirmed their jobs for the week, which had to be completed by Friday. There were eight job descriptions:

  • Connector: Go into detail regarding a specific text-to-self or text-to-text connection.
  • Passage Picker: Find one or two paragraphs that are moving in some way. Write why you picked each passage and describe your thoughts.
  • Plot Twister: What exactly would you change in the chapters that you read for homework to make them go the way that you would have preferred? Why?
  • Wonderer: As you read, create a list of relevant statements starting with "What if?" or "I wonder."
  • Predictor: Based on what you read for homework, explain what you think is going to happen next. Also explain why you made your predictions.
  • Psychologist: Give advice to one of the book’s characters. What would you tell him or her to do, and why?
  • Journalist: Pick a character and, based on what you read for homework, write a passage in his or her personal journal.
  • Student Choice: Decide how you would like to respond to the chapters that you read for homework. If you aren't satisfied with any of the jobs, create your own idea.

Here are the directions that accompanied every job:

  1. Your homework (at least 6-8 sentences) should be posted to your Literature Circle group as a new discussion.
  2. Name the discussion "Job title, pages." (e.g. Connector, 1-52)
  3. For extra credit, attach a completed Role Sheet to your discussion. (The Role Sheets were from Literature Circle Role Sheets for Fiction and Nonfiction Books and Literature Circles: The Way to Go and How to Get There.)
  4. Quality comment on the discussions of others. Post your discussion early to leave time for others to comment.

After the students confirmed their jobs, they started their reading for the week, which consisted of about 40 pages from their book. They read with each other's jobs in mind, as they were encouraged to continually pause, discuss the book through the lens of their individual tasks, and take notes on what they learned from classmates.


Students met to discuss the week's reading through their Schoology discussion forum posts (and optionally the role sheets). However, on a weekly basis, before everyone separated into groups, we investigated as a class how their posts could be used as conversation starters, but not as the conversation itself. As Stephanie Harvey and Harvey Daniels explain, when used improperly "these role sheets quickly become mechanical, hindering rather than empowering lively, spontaneous book talk" (p. 248).

To promote in-depth conversation, we were constantly coming up with sentence starters that would assist in uncovering a deeper understanding of what was read through rich inquiry and debate. (As a starting point, we called upon prompts from Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design and Embedded Formative Assessment.) In the end, the goal was for students to collaborate through the use of their own "thick" questions and without assistance from the teacher, outside resources, jobs, or role sheets.

During both the Monday and Friday sessions, I simply traveled from group to group, helping them to stay on task and facilitate conversation. As the school year progressed, the majority of the groups no longer needed my assistance.

During each Friday session I let all of the groups know when five minutes remained. At that point, the students individually completed and handed in either the Individual Rating Report (adapted from the Literature Circles book) or the Progress-Process Person form (adapted from the Literature Circle Role Sheets book). We alternated which handout was used on a weekly basis.

On the Individual Rating Report, students graded themselves on a scale for such statements as:

  • I was responsible and brought my book to class.
  • I encouraged others to share group work.
  • I shared group time by building on the ideas of others.

There were also a few open-ended questions involving what was learned, what questions existed, and what could be improved upon for next time.

On the Progress-Process Person form, students rated all of their group members on a scale regarding whether or not they were prepared, how much they contributed while also encouraging others to contribute, and if they remained focused.

In the End

My process represents one of countless ways to facilitate literature circles, so feel free to take it, argue with it, or adapt it to fit your students' needs.

If I were to return to the classroom and revise this process, it would be interesting do away with the jobs and role sheets altogether and have the students "take full responsibility for capturing their during-reading responses using Post-its, text annotations, bookmarks, and journals" (Harvey & Daniels, 2015).

How do you or could you run literature circles in your classroom? Could literature circles work across all content areas, and not just language arts?

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Matt Butcher's picture

My biggest issue with literature circles is keeping them talking longer than 5 minutes (maybe 10). Only the most motivated groups talk for 40 minutes. How do you keep them talking?

Alex Shevrin's picture
Alex Shevrin
Community college teacher, former school leader, Edutopia community facilitator

Matt, it sounds like the roles themselves provide a lot of structure for those 40 minutes. I imagine for everyone to share their pre-work would take a fair amount of time. I would also look critically at the "why" behind assigning the activity a certain amount of time - if it takes less time but students are meeting the objectives, no problem!

Kathleen Ralf's picture
Kathleen Ralf
Teacher of Humanities & English at Frankfurt International School and online instructor for Genocide & Human Rights at Global Online Academy

I do something similar using Haiku Learning. Groups have their own wikiprojects. They create their reading calendar, choose roles, and curate their contributions. One thing I added to help me monitor the discussion was screencasting. Students filmed their group discussions and then posted them to their pages. They often went back and rewatched their discussions. The demeanors of my students changed because they were taping themselves. They seemed to take the discussions more seriously.

Maren D.'s picture

This thank you is long overdue! After moving from first to fifth grade, I was really struggling to find the right routine for literature. In fifth grade we do not have much uninterrupted time, and I could no longer do traditional daily or even 3 times weekly literature groups. Your ideas and jobs have helped me to come up with a system that the students are thriving with! Colleagues and I have added on additional jobs that align with the Sandra Kaplan Iconic Prompts which our district uses. Our students use Moodle to post their job responses and are able to read and comment from home. This model has allowed me to build in weekly routines that are so valuable to my students. They are reading much more great literature and I have almost eliminated my reluctant readers. They are so excited for our Friday "Book Clubs" and have become experts at running their groups. We worked on questioning and they are now adept at coming up with some of the questions for their group. Thanks so much for sharing!

Maren D.'s picture

Hi Matt- For my fifth graders, I split the Friday meeting into 3 sections, the first two sections are about 10 minutes and the last is 20-30 minutes. For parts one and two, each student has 3 colored Popsicle stick that put in the middle of the circle when they have made a contribution.

For the first part, they have a general discussion about what they read this week. I have a "discussion starters" sheet that they can use (I wonder..., I predict... etc), they can talk about any burning observations, and they can talk about their observations from their jobs. This last about 10 minutes. I do not have them bring their computers, or share their posts, since this is a distraction for this group and I want them to really be talk and listening, not reading from a screen. Since students already comment on each others posts prior to Friday, they will have read what their group members responded. When about 10 minutes is up, I say, "OK if your group is ready to move on to the discussion cards, you can do that now."

The next part of the discussion is based on "discussion cards". Before we meet, students make a least one question for their group. I also have sets of comprehension cards that will work for any novel that I provide to the groups. They take turns turning over a question and having a group discussion about it. Some group are really good at adding on, agreeing, disagreeing, using text evidence, etc. After 10 minutes I let them know that if they are ready to move on to step 3 they can.

For the final part, students choose one of the discussion questions and write a response in their journal based on that question. They work on this individually.

Tracey Cringle's picture

I am looking at increasing student motivation with reading, and I believe the socialisation of Literacy Circles may help to address that. The New London Group (1996) identified that 'literacy was primarily a socio-cultural phenomenon'. As teachers we need to provide activities that encourage discussion and allow students to relate their reading to their own experiences. Even within the same LC group the students will inevitably draw different meanings from some texts due to their own social and cultural viewpoints. In New Zealand we are a very multicultural society with a large proportion of Asian and Pasifika students, as well as our own indigenous Maori akonga. In order to develop their sense of self-worth, and ultimately engagement with their learning, it is important that they have a safe, neutral environment to discuss books they read from their own cultural viewpoint.

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