George Lucas Educational Foundation

Toss the Traditional Textbook: Revamping a Curriculum

Open source education resources can replace stale old volumes.
Grace Rubenstein
Former senior producer at Edutopia
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Credit: David Julian

In the El Paso Independent School District, in El Paso, Texas, the high school algebra textbooks are dog eared and worn, thumbed by students year after year and aligned with state educational standards that have since been updated. Like all printed books, the algebra books are frozen in time, reflecting (hopefully) the state of the art of knowledge at the moment the publisher's deadline hit.

Therein, however, lies the problem: Classroom teaching shouldn't be as static as the textbooks on which it's based.

Superintendent Lorenzo Garcia has a better idea: He has set his sights on having El Paso's teaching coaches create their own source materials for use across the school district. Someday, he hopes, they'll even write their own textbooks. They'll do it cheaply, collaboratively, and efficiently -- through open source technology.

Open source content, or material freely contributed and given away, is best known to software engineers through operating systems such as Linux and to the nongeeky rest of us through the online encyclopedia Wikipedia. Open source, unfortunately, sometimes gets a bad rap as the unreliable product of a free-for-all by the unqualified yet opinionated masses.

It doesn't all have to be so anarchistic; to earn the "open source" definition, materials must be licensed so that anyone may freely use, modify, and republish them. This status enables material to be collaboratively written online through group-editing software. Done more deliberately, this method holds huge potential benefits for K-12 schools, and the possibilities are beginning to dawn on a handful of forward-thinking educators.

"Increasingly, you're going to see open education projects become the leading publication outlet for educational material, because they're so flexible, they're so easy to maintain, and authors can have such a big impact by publishing their material with open access," says Richard Baraniuk, founder of the open source content library Connexions. Open source authoring can provide more diverse and up-to-date materials than the lumbering print-textbook process can, and if teachers contribute, it could pour the wisdom of wired teachers everywhere into a collective global brain.

Connexions is where Garcia has chosen to develop El Paso's new course material. Baraniuk, an engineering professor at Rice University, launched the nonprofit Web site in 1999 with a dizzying goal: "to provide universal access to all the world's knowledge to all the world's people in all the world's languages, and make that completely, freely available."

Rather than slog through an entire book, contributors on Connexions write bite-size modules, or lessons on a single, simple chunk of knowledge, such as the cell cycle or the three branches of government. Other people may use these chunks one at a time or mix, match, and assemble them into a course of their own design. Anyone may create a new, modified version of any module, though the original author's work remains available on the site. Connexions has accumulated nearly 200 courses and more than 3,300 modules.

The Global Education and Learning Cooperative, a not-for-profit spin-off of Sun Microsystems, is gearing up a Web site similar to Connexions, only focused specifically on K-12 math, science, technology, reading and language arts, and foreign-language instruction. Organizers aim to build a critical mass of curricula and a large community of active contributors by the beginning of the new year.

Open source content could bolster the education of not only students but also teachers, says Ronald Powell, administrator of the Desert/Mountain Special Education Local Plan Area, in San Bernardino County, California. He sees an open source library as the ideal environment for teachers to share best practices and lesson plans and to overcome the isolation that forces new teachers to learn solely by trial and error. "All of us are smarter than one of us," he adds.

Powell knows the risks of opening content up to unregulated editing. "Education is fully populated with wild and crazy ideas, many of which don't work," he says. The key is to attract enough teachers to the site that the reasoned many can police the activities of the errant few.

Why would someone spend time writing materials just to let anyone use them free? It's not about the money, say devotees of open content; it's about the personal credit, and the impact authors can have. On Connexions (which, unlike Wikipedia, identifies authors by name), the most popular contributor is Kitty Jones, a private music instructor in Champaign, Illinois.

Her modules on teaching students to play and read music are viewed up to 600,000 times a month, frequently by educators in U.S. K-12 schools. Garcia says such open source publishing can honor the expertise of teachers who feel disenfranchised by standardized curriculum and exams.

Baraniuk envisions a day when his site will hold so much knowledge that each student can have a personalized textbook cobbled together from various modules to match his or her strengths and weaknesses, then ordered from a print-on-demand publisher for about $20 and delivered to school overnight. Compare that to a typical textbook price tag of $60-$80.

For public schools, however, there's a snag in realizing this vision; districts generally may buy primary textbooks only that their state has approved for adoption. (Most universities fall under no such restriction, and Connexions already boasts the content for any college student to print up a complete electrical-engineering textbook.)

Sanford Forte, a Silicon Valley entrepreneur who used to work in textbook publishing, is campaigning to change this closed system through his not-for-profit organization, the California Open Source Textbook Project. (See the Edutopia article "Slash the Textbook Budget with Open-Content Curricula.")

No open source K-12 books that conform to required state curriculum frameworks have emerged so far, Forte says, because denizens of what he calls the "Wild West" open source environment don't like the yoke of state standards. But a group of teachers working together in a protected space, where open source cowboys couldn't trespass, could produce far more innovative material than Forte sees in conventional texts, and for far less money.

All that's needed, he adds, is a little initiative by state officials or private investors -- and he figures an investor with enough patience could turn a distribution-only, open source, state-approved textbook enterprise into a $200 million business.

Many teachers are already using open source content to supplement primary texts. "We're going to revolutionize the whole book industry," says El Paso's Lorenzo Garcia, who plans to start his staff writing and using Connexions modules this fall. Ultimately, he'll seek state support for El Paso teachers to create their own full-fledged textbooks. He says, "Wouldn't that be something?"

Grace Rubenstein is a senior producer at Edutopia.

Comments (4) Sign in or register to comment Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS

Anne Pemberton's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I am delighted to learn about this project. I have been working towards similar goals since before I retired a few years ago. The website, Educational Synthesis, is the product I have produced so far, and I have, on average, about 1.5 million pageviews of the the site per year.

The site include personalized books for reading and introduction to events and people in history

It also includes an extensive collection of Famous Americans originally designed to be used by primary-aged students (these were originally aligned to the Virginia SOLs but have gone well beyond them since). The Famous Americans can be found at ...

In recent days, I've started a companion site for Famous People around the World, .... this will start out with some pages for Australians, perhaps, Canadians, and Ghanians to start. I hope that students will help to build this site, but if not, will do it as I have the Famous Americans, one or a few at a time.

Also on the site are reproducable arithmetic worksheets which generate different style worksheets with random numbers. You will find these at along with other math resources.

At present, I am working on a flash-generated set of mini-lessons on Civilization, to include some of the Ancient Civilizations. You can see the course so far at Not all sections are complete, and some have different audio from video where we are still working on those pieces. You can see the civilizations I plan to include on ...

There are many more sections of the site of interest beyond those mentioned here. I hope you will explore them and see how they will fit into your larger scheme of things.

Anne Pemberton
Vice President, Educational Synthesis

Brian Bridges's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I must take issue with Sanford Forte's claim that no K-12 open source textbooks conform to state frameworks. Here in California, Governor schwarzenegger's Free Digital Textbook Initiative has just concluded phase 1. Of the 16 free or open source high school math and science textbooks that were reviewed, several met 100% of California's rigorous content standards and many others passed a high number. Results may be found at

Brian Bridges
Director, CLRN

Michael J.Trout's picture
Anonymous (not verified)


I am the CEO and Founder of EDUIT, Inc a 501c3 founded in 2001. I have a very important and ambitious project that I am working on and hoping you will be intrigued and interested in what we are going an request contact us. I am sure the Foundation gets inundated with emails but I am hoping you will take a moment to examine what I am proposing and contemplate the impact it could have on humanity. I seem to be the only person at the moment with a viable plan to "flatten" global education. I am the only person talking about it and I firmly believe it can be done in the next 2-3 years by focusing on providing the solution to India and China and other Asian countries who desperately need it.

In the last month, after promoting an article on linkedin, a number of key people started to join our project on e3.0 group on linkedin. To list a few: the Founder & CEO, Alethia Education, Chief Operational Officer at Global Academic and Management Solutions, Director at CII - Confederation of Indian Industry, Deputy Director at Confederation of Indian Industry, Head - HughesNet Global Education, Director - eSolve Knowledge Service Pvt. Ltd., Founder, National Organization for Software & Technology Professionals, Chief Solutions Architect at Starshine Academy, Director - Elephantversity Institute of Innovation, CEO at SYNERGY, Director - Research, Education Technology Group at Texas Instruments, Inc, Director, Education Technology at National School Boards Association, Director Information Security Practices at ISACA, CEO MetaMorph, Owner at Trinity Future-In Pvt. Ltd, COO & Global Delivery Head @ Corpus Media Labs, Co-Founder, Radix Learning, Chief Learning Strategist at Brainvisa, CTO at Brainvisa Technologies, Co-Founder, Principal Investigator at SLOODLE and others. My month old group on has attracted over 230 members from top eLearning companies around the globe, including Mohamed Usama Baioumy, a senior project manager from Microsoft. We have also been able to assembled a 100 member e3.0 India committee to back our project in India. We will be incorporating EDUIT, India and have generated some interest from China. We have been invited to set up offices by Suresh Vijayan who work for the Chinese Minister of Education. They have offered to provide us with computers, servers and free rent to and staff to start work on the project.

So what is the solution? Well simple. Build the single user education platform for global education that can, in essence plug into VWs unlocking multi user learning. What will this platform look and feel like? A multi-touch interactive TV that autonomously pushes short three minute objective-base learning content tied to fun games that test measurable outcomes. So simple a two year-old will be able to learn on it. Where will the content come from? 70 years of global television that has been sliced apart and meta tagged by a global community. Who will mash the content? Anyone. How will education content be delivered? It will be delivered to any web enabled device. Who is building it? We are and we plan to work with India or China. Why India and China? Because they need a solution that is open source free, accessible and doesn't require reading and typing -- one that can work outside of language barriers. What is the platform called? Its called the eSingularity Platform. Here the great news for open source VWs. It will plug in to them unlocking multiuser functionality. What will the effect eSingularity will have on western education? I think It will be an "eSputnik" event for western education as it leapfrogs Asia from edu1.0 to edu3.0 while western education focuses on soon to be redundant edu2.0 solutions. (EDUIT, Inc. all rights reserved)

I am looking forward to hearing back from you,


Michael J. Trout, MFA

1115 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Third Floor
Washington, DC 20005

"...redefining the way education is played..."
Skype: EDUITorg
DC: 202 360 4467

Luisa Perez Georgitsos's picture

This was such an interesting read, I do however agree - there are positives and negatives throughout this process. I want to share what I have done with a few teachers at a school that I work in in Montreal, Canada. As a special education teacher, finding resources for our students can be quite difficult. My students have higher order social skills however their english comprehension ranges from grade 2-4. Finding textbooks that are considered "high interest - low comprehension" are very difficult, and often -boring! This means that we often must teacher create our own materials. We one day realized that every other teacher was doing the same. We created a shared drive were we share all of our materials. It has been a great medium for us to share the resources we've created ourselves. We also have our own copy center, were students create copy books with adaptable pages for our students, as well as our own notebooks like calendar book, daily math books etc...
Although what I am talking about here is on a much smaller scale, I can really appreciate the benefits of having something done like this.
Looking forward to hearing any updates!

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