George Lucas Educational Foundation
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Critical thinking is trendy these days. With 6.3 million hits resulting from a Google search -- six times "Bloom's Taxonomy" -- its importance is undeniable. Worldwide, critical thinking (CT) is integrated into finger-painting lessons, units on Swiss immigrants, discussions of Cinderella, and the Common Core State Standards. In short, critical thinking is more beloved than Egyptian cotton.

Definitions abound. Critical thinking is:

  • "Seeing both sides of an issue." -- Daniel Willingham
  • "An ability to use reason to move beyond the acquisition of facts to uncover deep meaning." -- Robert Weissberg
  • "A reflective and reasonable thought process embodying depth, accuracy, and astute judgment to determine the merit of a decision, an object, or a theory." -- Huda Umar Alwehaibi
  • "Self-guided, self-disciplined thinking which attempts to reason at the highest level of quality in a fair-minded way." -- Linda Elder

Jarno M. Kopomen, founder of RandomtheApp, shares his insight on the subject: "The highest form of critical thinking? A person disagreeing with her/himself." Kopomen's point acknowledges the importance of self-doubt. In other words, to model critical thinking for students, teachers need to be openly and comfortably uncertain.

Meanwhile, watch out for CT posers. An awkward moment with a textbook representative ensued when I pointed out a ninth grade basal question. Underneath an old photo of a rickshaw winding through heavy automobile traffic, there was a question labeled critical thinking: "How does a rickshaw make travelers vulnerable on the open highway?"

"How is that critical thinking?" I asked.

"It really gets students thinking about the dangers of rickshaws," he said. That was the best he could do.

Joe Lau's CT Framework

What do critical thinkers do? An Introduction to Critical Thinking and Creativity: Think More, Think Better, by Joe Y.F. Lau, lists six things:

  1. Understand the logical connections between ideas.
  2. Identify, construct, and evaluate arguments.
  3. Detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning.
  4. Solve problems systematically.
  5. Identify the relevance and importance of ideas.
  6. Reflect on the justification of one's own beliefs and values.

The specific behaviors Lau identifies are skills that K-12 students can be taught. For example, let's look at two real classroom scenarios that align with that list.

Example #1: Making Intentional Errors in Math

Evan Stoudt is a math teacher from New Orleans who sings to his high school math students (adorable!) and creates opportunities for CT by making purposeful math errors during his board work so that students have the opportunity to detect inconsistencies and then defend their analysis. Watch this short video of Evan's lesson, hosted by the School Improvement Network.

This scenario aligns with Lau's #3 (detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning), and also #6 (reflect on the justification of one's own beliefs and values).

Example #2: Designer Babies, Role Playing, and PBL

Kelly Yonce, a biology teacher at East Wake School of Integrated Technology in North Carolina, facilitates problem-based learning (PBL) on the topic of designer babies -- how fertility clinics allow parents to select a child's physical traits.

Inquiry is in the DNA of PBL, which features learners choosing a guiding question that prompts a need to know, then organizing to find the answers, and finally concluding with a finished project or solved problem.

After having students gather in groups and assume the role of genetic counselors, Yonce presents teams with a (fictional) family that possesses various genetic histories. The "counselors" are instructed to conduct a risk analysis and then facilitate genetic counseling interviews. They are also instructed to blog about the ethics of genetically designed babies.

Her unit, Yonce explains, shows that "somebody, somewhere actually uses the knowledge [students] are expected to acquire. I don't get the question, 'Why do we need to know this?' very much any more.

Dan Lewandowski's Learn NC article walks through Kelly Yonce's complete designer baby curriculum.

This second example aligns with Lau's #4 (solve problems systematically) and #5 (identify the relevance and importance of ideas).

Three Curriculum Pathways That Promote Critical Thinking

Lau's six-point list isn't the only way to ensure that your class addresses CT. Whether you use authentic inquiry, PBL, or interdisciplinary (integrated) studies, be assured that each of these curriculum models speeds learners along the autobahn of critical thinking.

But don't forget explicit road signs. Many kids don't realize that they're thinking critically unless you explicitly tell them. Robert Swartz, director of the National Center for Teaching Thinking, recommends that teachers review CT approaches at the end of a lesson and have students paraphrase strategies in their own words.

In other words, show them how much they know, then tell them.

Here are some resources to help you explore these pathways.

Critical Thinking



Integrated Studies

So what ideas do you have for teaching critical thinking?

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Comments (7) Sign in or register to comment Follow Subscribe to comments via RSS

Vuong Dinh's picture

Currently learning method for self-study students are being applied Wray and highly effective

Laura Thomas's picture
Laura Thomas
Director, Antioch University New England Center for School Renewal, Author of Facilitating Authentic Learning, Director of the Antioch Critical Skills Program; Elementary Library Media Specialist

I think any teaching method that requires students to ask questions and defend opinions is going to increase their skills as critical thinkers. The tricky part is continuing to increase the level of complexity so they keep growing, right? How do you do that?

RosemaryevansUTS's picture

Another very valuable source on critical thinking and inquiry is the Critical Thinking Consortium. See: The work of Roland Case and Garfield Gini-Newman truly supports teachers to develop curricula that engages students in critical thinking.

Gaetan Pappalardo's picture
Gaetan Pappalardo
Teacher, Author, Guitar––Word.

Here's a little exercise I do with my 3rd graders. It's usually a morning job (As soon as they come in). Before class I'll start drawing something on the board. I don't plan out what i'm drawing. I just start to draw an object. I don't replicate anything. I just try to draw something that has never been seen before, something new.

My students are supposed to write out what they think it is, what it's used for, etc.. with reasons behind they're thinking. Then we share. After a student shares his/her insight about the object, other students are allowed to question/debunk their ideas by identifying issues the reasoning of what the object is and how it works.

Just a quick little morning activity with 8 year-olds.

Thanks for the article!!


Growing Thinkers's picture

During the past 17 years I had a big question in my head.
Can thinking be taught? If yes, then how?
This was an inspiration by a wonderful teacher I was lucky to have.
During the professional development chances I had several pieces of the puzzle were gathered to answer this question.
They are:
* The best way to enhance the brain to think is to ask a question. This question will create a gap in the brain which will work very hard to fill it.
* There are stages for the thinking process regardless of the topic or the reason of thinking. And these stages usually go in order.
* During each of these stages we usually use a group of thinking skills, but not in necessarily in order.
* These skills can be trained on like any other skill.
* When these skills are mastered, the brain will automatically use them in any situation whether inside or outside the school.
* When correlating these skills with proper questions, the brain will get used to asking these questions continuously, so its efficiency in working will deepen day after day.
* Producing a classroom activity to teach these skills can be done by any teacher.

Norah's picture
Early childhood teacher, writer, life-long learner

I love the list of six things that critical thinkers do, and the examples of critical thinking embedded in classroom practice. Well done. Goes well beyond the basal text example!

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