George Lucas Educational Foundation
Inquiry-Based Learning

Inquiry and the Research Process

Tips for ensuring that your students’ research fosters genuine inquiry.
Illustration showing the outline of a human head with a question mark and other icons symbolizing thinking
Illustration showing the outline of a human head with a question mark and other icons symbolizing thinking
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Over the summer, I had a fascinating conversation with a group of educators. After spending several days discussing ways to encourage student inquiry, a technology specialist raised a pointed question: “What if the librarians already have a district-approved research process? Does what we’re doing conflict?” As I pondered her question, I realized a fundamental problem: inquiry and research had somehow morphed into synonyms.

Instead of answering her question, I posed another one: “Can students do research without inquiry, or inquiry without a formal research process?”

The Research Process and Active Learning

Over 10 years ago, our school librarian introduced me to the Kentucky Virtual Library research process. Using a gameboard as an interface, the process presents students with concrete steps to support their planning, searching, note taking, and writing. The clearly articulated steps, logical progression, and embedded strategies supported our students as they located, identified, and evaluated information. Though intended for elementary students, it provided a concrete pathway for our middle schoolers as well. We even printed out the main page of the website and gave the students stickers to mark off each task they completed.

While this research process helps students locate and evaluate information about any topic, it does not ensure that they have an opportunity to ask questions, investigate problems, or make connections to their own personal experience. By definition, inquiry requires students to engage in active learning by generating their own driving questions, seeking out answers, and exploring complex problems. Research, though often a component of inquiry, addresses the process of finding answers.

A teacher and I recently discussed this dichotomy. She explained that in her upcoming animal adaptation unit, the students would research a specific animal. They would locate facts about the animal’s appearance, habitat, etc., to fill in a provided outline.

Though the teacher provided excellent scaffolding of the research process so that her students could look up information from multiple sources, articulate their findings, and document their learning, inquiry would imply that the students asked the questions. We brainstormed what might happen if we asked students a driving question such as: “Why do some animals from around the world look the same and others look very different?” The students would still work through the research process, but they would also have to define same and then apply their definition.

When we asked our fourth graders this question during their study of animals in Africa, they drove the question around the world. Though they began their investigation by examining the similarities in physical characteristics between different animals in the same habitats, they quickly started asking questions on a global level. Besides physical characteristics, what traits do animals in the same habitat share? Do animals in the the same biome, but on a different continent, have similar traits? Why are some animals found on multiple continents while others are unique to just one location?

Another great example of scaffolded inquiry that I’ve seen recently comes from educators Anthony Egbers and Kerryn White of South Africa. They used Book Creator to make a workbook to guide their students in exploring the concept of the Cradle of Humankind. Unlike the Kentucky Virtual Library research process, theirs focuses as much on the questions that students ask as on the information that they find and evaluate.

Three Strategies to Encourage Inquiry

In the workshop that sparked this debate, we considered three strategies for encouraging student inquiry. First, we examined the use of visible thinking routines. These question sets—such as See Think Wonder and Think Puzzle Explore—scaffold students’ questioning and reflection so that they deeply consider both content and context. Sometimes, students need structure to begin asking questions.

Next, instead of focusing a research project on a topic or concept, we considered the power of an essential question. According to Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, essential questions do not lead to a single answer but instead serve as a catalyst for discussion, require higher-order thinking skills such as inference and evaluation, and spark more questions (that lead to even more inquiry).

Finally, inquiry should tap into student curiosity and wonder. In his book The Falconer, Grant Lichtman discusses the importance of “what if?” questions. As an example, he poses this question: “What if the sun rose in the West and set in the East?” While the immediate reaction may be to just state that it doesn’t, what if it did? What would that imply? What else might have to happen? By asking such questions, teachers remove all limitations to how students may respond. Similarly, world-renowned innovator Min Basadur suggests framing questions with “How might we _____?” He argues that question stems such as this spark more imaginative thinking and remove judgment from perceived answers.

This brings us back to that original question: Can there be research without inquiry and inquiry without research? Consider the power of a science lab. Students generate questions, formulate a hypothesis, investigate their theory, and then use their observations to develop an understanding of their discovery. Apps such as Desmos and Geogebra allow students to engage in inquiry with math. They can ask questions about mathematical concepts, explore simulations and scenarios, and manipulate formulas, as they explore complex phenomena that previously could not be addressed through active, hands-on learning.

While research can certainly exist as a stand-alone process, inquiry should ultimately drive students to view research as a means through which they can seek out new ideas, answer new questions, and wrestle with complex problems.

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schlosserwrites's picture

You are spot on with the understanding that research involves an inquiry process. I am concerned that some may read the introduction and decide that their school librarians do not ask children to investigate inquiry questions. That is not the case. The Standards for the 21st Century Learners developed by the American Association of School Librarians include inquiry in the research process. Here is the link to the standards and how they connect with the CCSS:
I was happy to read that you collaborate with your librarian and hope that all teachers take advantage of the great resources the school librarian has to offer!

Deb Schiano's picture
Deb Schiano
Teacher-Librarian who loves learning with her students and passionate educa

I am in total agreement with your thoughts and methods for scaffolding inquiry based learning. I too emphasize, questioning, synthesis, student voice and moving away from topical research practices to authentic inquiry experiences for teachers and students. I also agree that your explanation of the research process, limited to investigating and writing about a topic, is an ineffective practice and far cry from authentic student inquiry. You see, I'm a school librarian, I get inquiry, and although your article advocates for inquiry, it seems you've failed to practice what you preach. For example, if you valued questioning, as you say you do, you would have asked questions about: additional inquiry learning models, your definition for research, school librarian preparation programs, student standards met by and created by school librarians, and current school librarian programs and practices. With a quick search, even done haphazardly, you would have easily found a wealth of current literature and shared stories in educational communities across the world, exemplifying school librarians as harbingers and facilitators of innovative, authentic, student centered, inquiry and design based learning experiences. You would have seen that inquiry is foundational to being a school librarian. We get it, because it's what we do, what we study and what we believe in. I am truly sorry that your prior knowledge regarding a school librarian's understanding of inquiry was somehow flawed, however, I would have appreciated more thorough "research" on your part before associating an entire profession with a preconceived inaccurate and limited awareness.

Beth Holland's picture
Beth Holland
Johns Hopkins University Doctoral Candidate & EdTechTeacher Instructor


Thank you for replying as a librarian! I think that it is so important to involve everyone in the process. When I was the Director of Academic Technology, I also appreciated collaborating with the librarian and classroom teachers so that we could address research from multiple angles. Although, I do have a question: how might we ensure that the responsibility for teaching inquiry and research falls not just on the librarian but on everyone? Oftentimes, I find the librarian as the "gatekeeper" of the process but the shared responsibility does not always seem to be present.


Deb Schiano's picture
Deb Schiano
Teacher-Librarian who loves learning with her students and passionate educa

Hi Beth, Just seeing your reply. I'm sorry that your experience lead you to seeing the librarian as a gatekeeper; this is certainly not a role our profession promotes. In addition to fostering collaborative partnerships, I offer professional learning opportunities highlighting tools and strategies to promote: student questioning, savvy investigations, critical evaluation and analysis, diverse perspectives inclusion, knowledge construction, real world problem solving and authentic audience sharing. I also do my best to make these tools and strategies easily available to the community through the physical library and the library's website found at

Each student and teacher at our school has their own Chromebook, and with that, all that the world wide web has to offer at their fingertips. I do my best to offer support, scaffolds and experiences, so that all students have the opportunity to be successful learners.

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