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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation
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As a teacher, you put a lot of thought into how to make your class and the material as accessible and engaging as possible. You think about what you know, and how you first learned it. You think about what your students already know, and how to use that knowledge as the foundation for what you're about to teach. And, as if that's not enough, you think about how to make your content so engaging that no matter what else is happening (lunch next period, upcoming prom, or the latest social media scandal among the sophomores), your lesson will hold your students' attention. All that thought goes into a lesson, and still there are students spacing out during class or seeming to fall behind. Working so hard and still not reaching every student can be frustrating. And you have no one to blame but yourself -- you're hogging all the best learning in your classroom.

Thinking About Learning

In 2005, the National Academy of Sciences reviewed everything we know about learning in a paper called How Students Learn. In this report, 600 pages of research culminate in a single word, which the NAS identifies as the key to effective learning: metacognition. Metacognition (or thinking about thinking) is the secret to and driving force behind all effective learning. If you want your students to learn as much as possible, then you want to maximize the amount of metacognition they're doing. It's a pretty simple equation.

The only problem is that most classrooms are set up to promote metacognition in the teachers, not the students. To succeed, you need to think about your own thinking (How did I learn this? How have I taught this before? What worked and didn't work?) as well as your students' thinking (What do they know? What will keep them engaged?). However, it's far too easy for your students to kick back, disengage, and wait for you to simplify the material for them. You're like a personal trainer who says, "I'm going to help you meet all your fitness goals. Now sit back and watch me lift all the weight." Teaching is hard work -- you have to be constantly engaged and aware of your process and how to improve it. That's exactly what makes an expert learner. So share the wealth! If you really want your students to be better learners, then let them walk a mile in your shoes.

That's exactly what Eric Mazur decided to do. As a professor of physics at Harvard, Mazur was working with some of the most educated undergraduates in the world and yet, as he discovered, their lack of understanding was truly shocking. Mazur decided he needed to force his students to think more, so he made them teach each other. The change was astounding. His peer instruction approach has since grown into the flipped classroom movement, and research shows that it consistently produces better results than traditional lecture-based classrooms. No wonder! Flipping the classroom shifts the metacognitive balance toward the students. We want our students to do as much thinking as possible, and that's why the world's greatest teachers actively avoid teaching.

Shifting the Responsibility

We've seen this tactic succeed on a personal level. Ten years ago, when we started tutoring full time, we did everything we could to help our students. It was our job to make sure that they understood and succeeded. Pretty soon, we realized that our desire to help was exactly what was hurting our students the most. They knew we'd do everything we could, so they stopped doing things for themselves. Eventually, we turned our tutoring sessions around. When a student asked how something was done, we'd play dumb and say, "I don't know. We should probably look it up." The student would look it up, ask another question, and we'd say, "Hmmm. That's interesting. How can we find that out?" Again, the student would go to the book. After enough of those sessions, our students stopped bothering to ask us for the answers -- they already knew all the behaviors that would lead to understanding.

Curious whether this shift in our students was just a fluke, we began working our way through the scientific literature, and the picture quickly became clear. Today's students have incredible resources -- and a troubling lack of resourcefulness. They have brand new textbooks that they never crack open. They have the collected knowledge of the world available at the click of a mouse, but they never use it to look up things they don't know. After years of classroom lectures, students everywhere -- regardless of cultural or socioeconomic background -- had internalized the idea that students are supposed to get answers from teachers. At its core, that translates to the idea that the person in charge of their learning is someone other than them. And that's a huge problem because, ultimately, no one else can be responsible for our learning.

No matter how entertaining you make your lectures, you can't make your students pay attention. Only they can do that, and yet we fall victim to the idea that if the student isn't learning or isn’t paying attention, it's the teacher's fault. From a neuroscience perspective, that's just wrong. Yet by doing the majority of students' thinking and rushing to solve their problems, we reinforce that idea. In our experience, that has done America's students a tremendous disservice. A great education doesn't come from a teacher who thinks for you. It comes from a teacher who teaches (and pushes) you to think for yourself.

The Hands-Off Teacher

Of course, being pushed to think for yourself can initially be frustrating and emotionally uncomfortable. But we need to let America's children struggle if we want them to develop the skills to succeed on their own in the workforce of the future. And that means we all need a more sophisticated model of what makes a great teacher. We've all heard the horror stories of tenured teachers who did nothing all class period, but the reality is that a teacher who doesn't push students to figure things out for themselves isn't much better help. A great teacher doesn't teach as much as possible. A great teacher teaches as little as possible, while modeling the behaviors of how to figure something out. Perhaps it seems too obvious to say that your goal should be for students to think as much as possible during your class. But in this case, "thinking" really means thinking about the material plus how to dig in, break it apart, understand it, and build on that. It means thinking about how to constantly get better.

We know that not every teacher has the luxury of flipping his or her classroom, but here are some simple things you can do to move your students toward more metacognition:

  • At least once each class period, refuse to answer a student's question and instead get everybody to look up the answer.
  • Instead of marking exactly where the mistakes are on a test, essay, or homework assignment, tell students how many mistakes there are and challenge them to find every one.
  • Let students try planning an entire class period and recording themselves giving that lesson. The ability to teach something clearly is the best test of whether you understand it. (And there's no faster way to help them appreciate what you do!)
  • After a test, give your students the same test again, but fill it in first with actual wrong answers that students gave. As students grade this test and provide corrections (a process typically reserved for teachers), they'll have to think not only about the right way to do things, but also why someone might make each particular error.

How do your students think about their thinking?

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Jon Schleifer's picture

I wouldn't argue your assessment. Then again, my experience is that exclusion usually happens in the other direction. Even the article reads rather exclusive. I would use as evidence the fact that most educators, particularly those coming out of colleges of education, have never heard of Project Follow Through, or the dramatic evidence in favor of Direct Instruction it provides. I believe it is time for the education community to finally follow through on Project Follow Through, instead of hiding it.
Regards,
Jon

Youki Terada's picture
Youki Terada
Senior Associate, Research Curation

Thank you for your response, we definitely don't want to exclude effective practices (although it's not feasible to mention every successful practice in every blog post!) We do have coverage of Direct Instruction and explicit modeling, however:

https://www.edutopia.org/blog/tools-for-teaching-transform-direct-instru...
https://www.edutopia.org/blog/avoiding-q-and-a-teaching-petra-claflin
https://www.edutopia.org/blog/modeling-essential-for-learning-karen-lea
https://www.edutopia.org/blog/nuts-and-bolts-explicit-modeling-todd-finley

Also, looking at the "Common Myths and Misconceptions" section from the link you posted, I don't think that NIFDI would argue DI is more effective than student-centered learning. Check out myth #8 from the Tarver (1998) article:
http://www.nifdi.org/documents-library/doc_download/930-myths-and-truths...

"Myth #8: The rigid structure of DI lessons fosters dependence on the teacher; students taught with DI are not capable of functioning successfully in independent learning situations.

Truth #8: DI progresses from structured teacher-directed lessons to less and less structured independent seatwork; it teaches students to apply independently what they have learned in teacher-directed lessons."

Also consider that Project Follow Through happened almost 40 years ago. The blog authors write, "Today's students have incredible resources -- and a troubling lack of resourcefulness. They have brand new textbooks that they never crack open. They have the collected knowledge of the world available at the click of a mouse, but they never use it to look up things they don't know." The world is different now, and students have a wealth of information they can access, so they need the tools to be independent. Teacher-centered instruction is still important, but students must also be able to function in today's information economy.

You raise good points, though. If you'd like, please feel free to start a discussion on effective teaching practices -- the research does strongly support DI and I'm sure educators would be interested to learn more.
https://www.edutopia.org/community

You can also submit a guest blog:
https://www.edutopia.org/about/contact/write-for-edutopia

(2)
Peter Pappas's picture
Peter Pappas
Exploring frontiers of teaching, jazz, yoga, Macs, film

I applaud your approach of giving students the chance to figure it out for themselves.

The key to fostering reflection is scaffolding more choices for students to make about key elements of the lesson. Providing options gives students more to think about. Divergent student products gives students a chance to explain and defend their thinking. Student can then compare outcomes with their peers, assess successes (and failures) and design improvements. For some metacognitive prompts see my post "The Reflective Student: The Taxonomy of Reflection" http://bit.ly/uQT0xl

My blog is dedicated to relinquishing responsibility for learning to the students.
As teachers yield more students can be given "appropriate" choices to make about:

Content - what knowledge and skills will be studied?
Process - what materials, procedures, etc will be used?
Product - what will students produce to demonstrate their learning?
Evaluation - how will the learning be assessed?

David Duran's picture

Very interesting post. Thank you. I've been working in this line offering teachers evidences that our students can learn teaching others. I've just published a book, in Spanish at the moment- presenting evidences of learning-by-teaching and explain ways to use this principle in our classrooms, offering opportunities to our students to learn by teaching their peers. More info in http://aprensenar.jimdo.com/

John Gosling's picture
John Gosling
Learning and Empowering Teacher

Thanks a lot! i serve intelligent at-risk youth who can be challenging to me. I WILL use these empowering strategies!

James O'Hagan's picture

A lot of credence is given to flipping the classroom, but studies in the last ten years suggest that flipping, a component of active learning, is not a silver bullet approach to teaching. Jensen, Kummer, & Godoy (2015) wrote a peer-reviewed study called "Improvements from a flipped classroom may simply be the fruits of active learning." Their results suggest ". . . that the flipped classroom does not result in higher learning gains or better attitudes compared with the nonflipped classroom when both utilize an active-learning, constructivist approach and propose that learning gains in either condition are most likely a result of the active-learning style of instruction rather than the order in which the instructor participated in the learning process."

Sugata Mitra and his work with the "Hole in the Wall" computer also shows tremendous gains that appear to be repeatable as he has produced studies in India and England that demonstrate similar intrinsic growth of students.

And the pedagogical framework described in this post is very similar to Universal Design for Learning, which Eric Mazur actually used in his teaching (http://sites.tufts.edu/ests/files/2012/12/newsletter_sept_20021.pdf).

A lot of credit given to a flipped classroom here, but there is solid peer reviewed research and frameworks and theories that surround the idea of flipping that need further exploration to really dig into why this works.

Winston Sieck's picture
Winston Sieck
Cognitive Psychologist. Director of Thinker Academy.

A key goal of education is to create independent, life-long learners. Teachers who include these kinds of exercises that promote metacognition and self-regulated learning are directly assisting their students to achieve those aims. One other useful metacognitive exercise is the "mind dump," having students write all they can recall about the lesson. Like teaching others, it helps them distinguish what they really have down vs. just thought they knew. Nice post!

(1)
Lisa Epler Swaboda's picture

"After years of classroom lectures, students everywhere -- regardless of cultural or socioeconomic background -- had internalized the idea that students are supposed to get answers from teachers. At its core, that translates to the idea that the person in charge of their learning is someone other than them. And that's a huge problem because, ultimately, no one else can be responsible for our learning."

It's also highly influenced by parenting. Be prepared for push-back when using this approach in the classroom. Most parents will say you're not being "helpful". Helicopter parents especially will hate it.

Kayla v.'s picture

I'm a junior in high school, and some of my teachers have taken this idea of effective teaching being about teaching "as little as possible" to the extremes. It's remarkable how little effort some of them have put into their teaching - we students are given activity lists with deadlines for each worksheet, video assessment, etc., and we spend all (yes, all) of class time working on these. Meanwhile, they sit at their desks, getting other work done or even, as in the case of my 6th grade English teacher, blatantly shopping at Macy's while the majoring of students learn how to scrape by with bare minimum work and thinking (BS'ing the activities and cheating are common.) The responsible students may approach the teacher if they have further questions on how to do the activities, although these are often self-explanatory.
My 9th grade world history teacher, however, was amazing. He did use activity lists, but he'd also give passionate lectures (major respect for all teachers who are brave enough to do that, and who don't care if they look silly as long as the students will remember and learn). He watched videos with us and paused them to ask us questions, and often had us imagine we were people from whatever time period or event, which made it easier to grasp motives and gave us an appreciation for the history and people living in that time. (For one project, which was so much fun, I made a blog as Blaise Pascal (after he taught us how to set one up on Weebly), and then on Edmodo we commented on other students' Enlightenment scholars' ideas on their blogs while still representing our person. Two years later, I can still remember Pascal's key beliefs, inventions, and works, and how they made an impact on the world.)
Thus, I think that while students need to be active, teachers do, too, and teachers should vary lesson styles and techniques to keep students on their toes and critically thinking so that they can learn the most. And to teachers afraid that lecturing less will lead to worse government test scores, please realize that by pushing kids to think for themselves you'll be making their thinking processes more efficient, thereby helping them pick up new things faster and make them more likely to think out-of-the-box when faced with questions they've never seen before (and less likely to get discouraged, more confident, more likely to get the answer right, more likely to retain info long-term, etc.).

John S. Thomas's picture
John S. Thomas
First & Second Grade Teacher/Adjunct faculty Antioch University New England, former Elementary Principal

Kayla v. Thank you for your honest response. I'm so sorry you had these negative experiences with teachers. So it seems you are really fortunate to have had that 9th grade history teacher. Despite not having the best role models for teachers, it seems that you REALLY understand what education should be- perhaps you will become a educator yourself one day. :) I like to think my own teaching career started in 2nd grade. That was the year I continued to struggle to learn to read. (I had 2 undiagnosed learning disabilities) I struggled all through school and didn't figure learning out until college when I finally learned to teach myself the content using hands-on and creative ways. But it was these experiences that helped guide me to education to teach early elementary students and ultimately diagnose my own learning difficulties.

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