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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation
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The key to transformational teaching is not reacting, but rather a grinding obsession with analysis and preparation. Lee Shulman, as reported by Marge Scherer, suggests that expert teachers -- despite enormous challenges --demonstrate:

Cognitive understanding of how students learn; emotional preparation to relate to many students whose varied needs are not always evident; content knowledge from which to draw different ways to present a concept; and, finally, the ability to make teaching decisions quickly and act on them.

So how do they do that? Let's break it down.

1. Transformational Teachers Create Constructivist Experiences

Instructors tend to use one of two instructional orientations:

  1. Transmission: Where "the teacher's role is to prepare and transmit information to learners" and "the learners' role is to receive, store, and act upon this information."
  2. Transformational: Where students' active engagement in developing knowledge and skills, critical thinking, higher-order skills, and communication are facilitated by the instructor.

It is difficult to accomplish transformational teaching without understanding and implementing constructivist pedagogy -- facilitating hands-on experiences --where students construct meaning through active learning. However, the checklist below suggests some tactics:

What Does Transformational Teaching Look Like?

  1. Have students ask questions and solve real-world problems.
  2. Questions should require students to:
    • Analyze
    • Synthesize
    • Create
    • Empathize
    • Interpret
    • Reference background knowledge
    • Defend alternative perspectives
    • Determine what they know and don't know
  3. Organize students into learning groups.
  4. Make learning segments manageable through modeling and mastery.
  5. Guide, facilitate, challenge, and support.

Constructivist teachers focus on enriching students' perspective on the content by facilitating rich experiences. These themes appear in a survey conducted by Grant Wiggins, in which high school students were asked to complete this phrase: "I learn best when the teacher . . ." One adolescent wrote the following:

I learn best when the teacher is hands on and doesn't just talk at me. They need to be interested in what they're teaching and encourage class discussions. Not only does this encourage us to use what we learned, it also helps us see the information in a different way.

2. Transformational Instructors Teach Like Scientists, Artists, and Essayists

Transformational teachers know that artful teaching without science lacks efficacy, and scientific teaching without aesthetics lacks vision. Says child psychologist Dr. David Elkind, "The art comes from the teacher's personality, experience, and talents. The science comes from knowledge of child development and the structure of the curriculum." The art and science of teaching work in harmony. Writes Richard Bankert, an eighth grade science teacher, "The best teachers are artists who know the science of teaching."

In contrast to immature teachers who fill a 90-minute class with activities (and ignore targeted objectives), a transformational teacher treats those 90 minutes like a carefully crafted persuasive essay -- with a clear purpose and unique sense of style, a memorable beginning and end, a logical sequence, important content, nimble transitions, and contagious passion. Together, these characteristics persuade students to believe that learning the content and skills really matters.

3. Transformational Teachers Model Symphonic Thinking

To be effective in advancing human potential, teachers need to manifest what Daniel Pink calls "symphonic thinking" -- critically appraising and synthesizing new ideas. Someone with symphony thinking skills is able to do the following:

  • Understand the logical connections between ideas.
  • Identify, construct, and evaluate arguments.
  • Detect inconsistencies and common mistakes in reasoning.
  • Combine different ideas to form a new concept.
  • Identify the relevance and importance of ideas.
  • Reflect on the justification of one's own beliefs and values.

Nobody said this stuff was easy. But when teachers model symphonic thinking and students internalize it, graduates are better able to thrive in the new economy, according to Pink.

4. Transformational Teachers Facilitate Productive Struggle

It's hard not to rescue kids when they beg for help. But an instructor's altruistic instinct can get in the way of learning. In a Wired Magazine piece, "Telling You the Answer Isn't the Answer," Rhett Allain explains why letting students engage in productive struggle is the unpopular and necessary approach to instruction:

What if a person was having trouble doing a pull up for exercise? Instead of giving them some other exercise, I could help them by doing the pull up for that person. Right? No, that wouldn’t actually be useful. However, if I push on the person's feet a little bit, they can still struggle and still exercise.

Warning: allowing productive struggle to occur consumes more class time. But retention is undermined when learning is frictionless. Purposeful struggle today means less re-teaching tomorrow.

Allowing productive struggle to occur, using artistic and scientific instruction, modeling symphonic thinking, and encouraging students to lean into constructivist problem solving can lead to the holy grail of transformational teaching: epiphany. We hope you'll tell us about your transformational teaching in the comment area below.

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Comments (11) Sign in or register to comment Subscribe to comments via RSS

elisabethzorn's picture

Hi Todd,

Thank you for sharing this information. I especially enjoyed reading the fourth point of your article. All too often our students are just looking for the one right answer which doesn't exist. We need to challenge and encourage them to not be afraid of the initial struggle with the material--that it will truly benefit the students in the long run. Critical thinking skills are essential for the new jobs to which this generation of learners will be applying. I'm looking forward to sharing this information with my colleagues when the school year convenes in a few weeks. Thanks again!

Aidan Bryant's picture
Aidan Bryant
Student teacher from Sydney

Fantastic points made Todd, well summarized but also eloquently put; I love the quotes you've got. Will be sharing through my network.


KayLynn Govoni's picture

Thanks for validating my practice of "productive struggle". I always use the statement "ask 3 before you ask me" which encourages students to use communication skills and choose thier resources wisely. most 6th graders just want the answer the easy way. I will also respond to a question " gee, I don't know. how can we find that out?" The CASH CAB format is a great ice breaker for opening up class participation and allowing students to save face when they don't know an answer. They just phone a friend, or do a street shout out to get the information they need.

Steve B's picture

With feeling like it is a need to stay on a certain pace in the classroom, it is easy to just "give " answers to students if they are struggling on a problem to save some time. I actually feel pretty good about how long I wait for students to work on and develop answers to problems but it motivates me even more to let students struggle with developing answers with what was quoted in the article under the 4th transformational characteristic...under the warning it suggests that allowing productive struggle to occur will consume more class time, but it also suggest that struggling in the long run saves re-teaching time. I never thought about that before! I look back on this past year, and, yes, I can say I have re-taught info and probably because I didn't give enough time for students to develop, retain, and ingrain knowledge from answering questions using the productive struggling as a transformational teacher.

Thanks for bringing this to my attention!

JeanTushie's picture

This blog really resonates with me. I love the quote " The best teachers are artists who know the science of teaching." Teaching is a well orchestration of art and science that takes a lot of work to do well.

Patrick S. Morata's picture

What i like in this article sums up with this quotable line, "the teacher's role is to prepare and transmit information to learners" and "the learners' role is to receive, store, and act upon this information." it reminds me of our lesson in the Principles of Teaching 1. because it tackles about the guides in teaching and this is for teachers, especially. In my own opinion, to be a great and good teacher, you must obey what the principle of teaching is pointing out, so that your learners would be able to comprehend and they will learn.
Teachers are always Teachers, it is their duty to teach the different types of learners. To be an efficient teacher, he or she must have the knowledge and passion. Because if a teacher didn't have that knowledge in teaching then he can't perform well. And also the learners will be confused. Thank you..

Pete Reilly's picture
Pete Reilly
Author, A Path with Heart: The Inner Journey to Teaching Mastery

How does a teacher develop the "art of teaching"...described as one's "personality and talents"?

Self-knowledge is one of the cornerstones of effective teaching and there are many practices we can engage in that can help cultivate our unique strengths and gifts and help us re-wire patterns of behavior and habits that hinder us from greater levels of classroom effectiveness.

Unfortunately, most PD focuses on the 'science' of teaching: knowledge of content, knowledge of pedagogy, and knowledge of students, and ignores knowledge of "self". It would be helpful if we could begin to take the "art" of teaching more seriously. Perhaps, when we reach a certain level of success...professional development and personal development should become synonymous. Ask any educator about a teacher who had the greatest positive impact on their life and the answer almost always revolves around some personal characteristic.

Diedra Carlson's picture
Diedra Carlson
Public Montessori teacher from St. Paul, MN

Maria Montessori is the Superwoman of Transformational teaching. Her method is relevant and needed more than ever. I appreciate my Montessori education as a child of the method and a Montessori guide of 12 years.

Will M.'s picture
Will M.
Traveling the world to learn about education

I like this a lot. It reminds me of one of my favorite quotes that 'teachers need to stop thinking of themselves as dispensers of knowledge and instead see themselves as organizers of learning opportunities.' But I think more difficult that refining the craft of this type of teaching is getting teachers to a point where they truly believe in what students are capable of and trust them to push their own learning. If anyone's curious, here's an interview with someone who epitomizes that idea: http://www.lettersfromelsewhere.com/interview-paul-griffin-of-the-possib...

Ellie Cowen's picture

Hi Todd,
This is a very helpful breakdown of the essence of what makes teaching "transformational." Your vivid account of what "productive struggle" is and why the practice works is compelling but simple. Thank you!

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