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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

The College Preparatory School

Grades 9-12 | Oakland, CA

How Collaborative Learning Leads to Student Success

Encouraging students to reach out to each other to solve problems and share knowledge not only builds collaboration skills, it leads to deeper learning and understanding at The College Preparatory School in Oakland, California.
Matt Davis
Freelance Contributor at Edutopia
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A culture that emphasizes collective wisdom and collaborative work has helped students at The College Preparatory School (above) in Oakland, California, achieve academic success.

Credit: Zachary Fink

It's a foggy, grey morning in Oakland, California, but that hasn't deterred Betsy Thomas, a math teacher at The College Preparatory School (College Prep), from taking her students outside for a geometry lesson. Today, her students will become land surveyors, using rope and chalk to draw geometric shapes on the courtyard's blacktop. Her aims are to help students visualize the concepts already introduced in the classroom and to reinforce the learning through group collaboration. The assignment requires teamwork, communication, and precision.

A team of three boys begins constructing an equilateral triangle, after which they will construct two parallel lines and a triangle circumscribed by a circle. One student holds the rope in place at one vertex of the triangle, while the other two slowly move in a circle, using the rope as a giant compass to mark out the other points of the triangle. "Excellent work, fellas," Thomas says, nodding her approval.

College Prep is an elite, coed, nonprofit private high school, tucked into a scenic glen in the foothills of Oakland, California. The school enrolls students from almost 80 different schools in the San Francisco Bay Area. Tuition is about $34,000 per student and roughly 25 percent of students receive financial aid or scholarships. None have special needs or require English-language-learner services; 100 percent are admitted to college, most to top-tier universities.

It's obvious that the school possesses opportunities and resources beyond the dreams of the majority of America's schools. And yet, when you look at the learning strategies the school embraces and you ask the faculty and students what has made the most positive difference for them, what you see and hear are not freighted with dollar signs. What you see and hear are the age-old power and impact of collaborative learning, where three boys, sharing strings and chalk, are bent over the blacktop surveying triangles, as the father of geometry, Euclid, might have directed them to do more than 2,000 years ago.

The Sights and Sounds of Peer-to-Peer, Student-Led Learning

On any given day at College Prep, you will likely see quartets of students unraveling problem sets in math class (PDF) and hear the buzz of them asking questions and explaining things to each other; in English classes, you may see the teacher silently observing from the corner of the classroom while her students lead their own discussion about the book they are reading. Outside class, the peer-to-peer learning continues as students huddle around laptops and textbooks during breaks in the courtyard or in The Learning Center.

"What our collaborative learning style empowers and enables is a student's resilience -- how do you look to your neighbor as a resource, how do you test your own theories, how do you understand if you're on the right track or the wrong track?" says Monique DeVane, College Prep's head of school. "It teaches them that it's not just about content; it's about cultivating habits of mind that are the underpinnings of deeper scholarship."

Teachers at College Prep have strategies that facilitate this style of learning and promote a sense of shared responsibility among the students. In math, for instance, the teachers prompt the students to ask each other their questions before asking the teacher, so that students learn to rely on their own collective wisdom. The daily class worksheets (PDF) and periodic group tests (PDF) are intentionally designed to be harder than the individual homework or exams, and students quickly come to recognize how they are able to solve things as a group that they might not have been able to on their own. "I like the group tests because there are more challenging questions," one student explains, "and if I were doing them by myself, I probably wouldn't get them. But when you have three other people to help, then we figure it out together."

In English classes, students are encouraged to share and to listen to each other's individual interpretations of the text, underscoring the notion that there can be multiple right answers. During a discussion on The Odyssey (PDF), students offered differing opinions for why King Alcinous of the Phaeacians offers his beautiful daughter Nausicaa to Odysseus. Using points in the text, one student suggested it was for economic reasons; another thought it was because the King saw Odysseus as a Greek-god-like figure. And a third proposed that it was because the King recognized Odysseus's shrewdness. Although they didn't come to a consensus, that wasn't the point. Nurturing students' abilities to challenge peers' ideas and scrutinize and articulate their own is the focus of this student-led learning style.

"Our discussions give us a much broader perspective of cultures and different ideas because each of us, every student, has a different background," says Zander Sante, a junior at College Prep. "We're really learning that you don't necessarily have to be right. You just have to believe in your conclusions and find ways to prove them."

Opening the Door to Classroom Collaboration

For math teacher Thomas, who was strictly a lecture-style teacher before coming to College Prep, ceding the floor to her students was at first "unsettling." But now it's clear to her why allowing her students to learn in this way is so powerful. "They're learning more than just math," she says. "They're learning to be more proactive; they're learning how to depend on their peers. When they go off to college, they already know how to work with people and draw out their strengths."

And their graduates seem to bear this out. College Prep alumni consistently report back -- through surveys and anecdotes -- how well the school prepared them for the academic challenges of college, teaching them how to reach out for help when needed and helping them to develop the confidence to contribute to college seminars with their own analyses.

Establishing a culture of collaboration isn't resource-intensive. It doesn't take hours of professional development, or technology, or even technical know-how. And assessing collaborative work is usually simple and straightforward. But you do need open minds and the willingness to trust students with their learning. You need a culture that values every student's strengths and a school community that believes everyone can learn from each other. In other words, it requires the very things that nearly every school strives for. So why not give it a try?


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Larry Emmons's picture
Larry Emmons
Middle School Librarian, Sheldon ISD, Houston, TX

Collaborative Learning

Colleges and businesses are crying for people coming out of High School to be able to work together in groups. To address this need, many schools are changing their instructional model to one where students work together in groups to complete projects. However, some schools are skipping a very important step, and that is equipping those students with the necessary individual skills that are a prerequisite to group work.
Human Beings are highly intelligent, and from a very early age learn how to "work" whatever "system" in which they find themselves. Toddlers know how to charm parents, or even pit parents against one another to get what they want. Mark Twain would point out that a boy given the task of painting a fence knows how to get others to do the work for him. These are skills that do not need to be taught, because there is a built-in survival mode that comes with every child. That, coupled with this amazing human intelligence, results in children who can figure out how to work any situation to their benefit.
Schools who throw students together to do group work before covering the basics of accomplishing any task, are jumping the gun. First, students need to learn the difference between fact and opinion. Then, they need to know how to recognize facts, and how to find them. Following that, they need to learn how to interpret facts, and then they need to learn how to use those facts to draw conclusions. Once these basics are learned, students then need to be able to take what has been learned and produce a product. This requires a whole new set of skills. They might need to know how to draw a picture, or make a model. Computer skills might be needed to use spreadsheets or databases, and to produce charts or graphs. If a presentation is required, they may need skill in using PowerPoint, or video skills.
The point is that these basic skills need to be learned by each member of any group separately BEFORE the group comes together to work as a team. Any member of the team that has not acquired these skills will be dead weight, and will end up depending on the others to do the bulk of the work, for which all members will share credit.
Schools need to recognize this truth, and make sure that each student acquires the individual skills necessary to be able to contribute in a valuable way before being thrust into a group effort. It is all about competence. Any member of the group that does not possess competent work skills and a mature work ethic will not be able to contribute in a meaningful way to a group project.
Schools need to be sure that they are placing the horse squarely in front of the cart when they are preparing students for group work.

Larry E. Emmons
Dec. 7, 2012

zep's picture
zep
Education Specialist

Not everyone works in groups in their careers; 2 people in my family work completely alone, rarely interfacing with clients or colleagues. They are far from anti-social, they simply prefer to work alone. Similarly, if I were put in a group during h.s. math I probably would have stopped attending, show me an example, give me a book, and let me learn it & show you I know it. Cooperative learning & socialization may benefit some but for others its a recipe for disaster. The common core emphasis on "talking" about math in particular is going to help some and destroy some just as the current non-allowance of "talking" in class helps some and destroys some, when will we realize there are no silver bullets, stop and talk to your students & figure out how THEY say they like to learn your subject.

Melanie Link Taylor's picture
Melanie Link Taylor
Educator, Blogger, Southern California

Given the best framework, kids lead each other to great small group discussions. This gives the quiet ones a chance to express ideas and knowledge when the teacher has structured the collaboration groups appropriately. I believe the students retain the skills and topical information better for assessments, also. Throw in some creative projects---how much fun is that? Much more like a celebration of the subject than a task.

Shashank Sasidharan's picture

Back in India, school education has largely depended on the 'chalk and talk' method. Further, with national level exams, colloquially known as 'Board Exams', education has been anything but collaborative. In fact, such a system has fostered competition rather than cooperation. If such tools of collaboration were to be introduced to the country, learning on the whole would become an enjoyable process.

Vinuthna Gaddipati's picture

Absolutely agree with you zep. May be grouping up students interested in discussions and class activities and allotting a project to them. And giving a different assignment or project to others to solve individually would help them succeed in the course. But , in the current world human interactions and Socialization is an extremely important factor and a student who likes to learn math in his notebook should be pushed a little to learn and talk in a group.May be online communities is the best solution for such people. If they are shy to talk among people they know (with the fear of being judged) ; the professor can make them post anonymous in few MATH FORUMS online or so and this would help them slowly tend towards cooperative learning. Various twitter groups are as well available which could be the best form of participation as the world is now running towards twitter class rooms .

Mallikarjun Patil's picture

I agree with Malanie, collaborative learning is helpful for the 'quiet ones' to express their ideas. Collaboration activity involves active participation of the individuals to contribute in the discussions. More scope of individuals to express their ideas, thus making it a student centric approach rather than a traditional Teacher directed approach. Thus leading to student's success.

Further, in a discussion it is an added advantage if the people know each other. In this case, the chances of student expressing his ideas (which may be lame or innovative) increases as they already a warmth and understanding among them. Thus fostering student's success.

SAHIL MADAN's picture

Melanie you raised a very good point here about structuring the collaboration groups appropriately. I would like to add on to that by saying how we could make the collaboration groups better. The teacher should let the students fill a form to asses their current knowledge level. For example if student A is good in Algebra, and student B is good in Geometry but not Algebra. Then It would make sense to pair students A and B, so that one could learn from another.
In addition to that, I also agree on the fact that students retain information better when they are involved in group studying, it makes them think more about their own point of view, and also in getting to know others' point of view. If I talk about myself, I still remember most of the facts that I studied in groups, whereas, I hardly remember the ones I studied without any group interaction. It's also a lot more fun to work in groups, and as you rightly said, the subject becomes more of a celebration in a group rather that a mundane task.

Sree Aurovindh Viswanathan's picture

I would like to add more to posts made by Mallikarjun Patil and Sahil Madan.
@Mallikarjun Patil
As discussed in the post and the points made by others it makes it clear that collaboration myraid of advantages. It increases cognitive processes and increases the overall attention of the user[1][2]. Hence peer to peer student led learning is important as instructor led learning which is traditionally followed in schools.

@Sahil Madan:

I would like to extend your point. Small group with difference in knowledge , as in pairing a student who has a good amount of knowledge with the one with lower level of knowledge has provided better learning to both. In addition, the knowledge that each subject develops is beyond what they can do alone without discussing with each other. Also, they way students communicate with each other and the prior knowledge they have at the subject matters a lot[3].

References:

P. Dillenbourg, "What do you mean by collaborative learning?," Collaborative-learning: Cognitive and computational approaches., pp. 1-19, 1999.
[2] P. Dillenbourg, G. Zufferey, H. Alavi, P. Jermann, S. Do-Lenh, Q. Bonnard, et al., "Classroom orchestration: The third circle of usability," CSCL2011 Proceedings, vol. 1, pp. 510-517, 2011.
[3]Stahl, Gerry. Group cognition: Computer support for building collaborative knowledge. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

Srinivasaragavan Annamalai Rajamohan's picture

Excellent article on how the collaborative learning is used in the real world. After high school, collaborative learning and in general collaborating with other people is unavoidable. The problem at current juncture is most of the schools do not teach how to collaborate with fellow students. In a school, the focus in mainly on a individual. Among all the points listed in the article, I find ""Our discussions give us a much broader perspective of cultures and different ideas because each of us, every student, has a different background" as the most interesting and the secret behind the success of collaborative learning. People from same background or same culture think alike since they are not exposed to a other culture. And, as pointed in the article, it helps to analyze the students performance. Also, many collaborative learning tools getting popular (http://www.docurated.com/101-free-free-try-online-collaborative-learning...) proves why it's effective

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