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Perfecting with Practice: Project-Based Teaching

Suzie Boss

Journalist and PBL advocate
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In project learning (PL), plans that look spectacular on paper can go awry when students enter the picture. During the implementation phase, students may decide to head in directions their teacher never anticipated.

Tensions can build if teams don't understand what it means to collaborate or share responsibility for project success. Creative problem solving can start to feel like classroom chaos. This is when the art of project-based teaching makes all the difference.

What if you're new to teaching with the project approach? Do you have to learn everything the hard way?

Fortunately, veteran PL teachers are only too happy to share their wisdom. For the past several weeks, I've had the pleasure of listening to educators talk about the nitty-gritty of projects. Colleague Jane Krauss and I just wrapped up hosting a series of webinars. (If you are interested, the discussion continues here.)

Here are just a few gems from this conversation, along with links to projects that will give you some new ideas to try with your students.

Get Minds Inquiring

Inquiry is at the heart of project learning, and PL veterans are deliberate about sparking student curiosity before a project actually begins. Some teachers leave clues in plain sight, encouraging students to do preliminary detective work that will fire up their curiosity. Others use opinion polls to ignite class discussions. Kevin Gant from the New Tech Network offers this sample question to lead into a physics project: "What's the better car: Dodge Viper or Shelby Cobra?" A class survey takes just a few minutes, Gant says, but, "time spent getting the students riled up about an issue is golden."

Lay a Foundation

The project approach challenges students to think for themselves, conduct research, solve authentic problems, meet deadlines, and manage much of their own learning. Experienced teachers don't take these skills for granted. They invest time to introduce students to the project process. Terry Smith from Hannibal, Missouri, uses the popular Monster Project to "get students into project mode" by negotiating decision making in small teams.

Before Sue Boudreau, teaching in Orinda, California, unleashes students on a complex project, she starts with a low-risk activity to teach process skills. She might ask students to think about all the steps associated with a familiar task, such as getting a meal ready for dinner guests. Then she has them work backwards from the dinner bell to figure out the project flow. Currently, Boudreau's middle school students are using their project skills to take on real-world science challenges through the Take Action Project.

Look to the Discipline for Cues

Where are the boundaries when students are pursuing open-ended questions? Neil Stephenson from Calgary, Alberta, suggests looking to the discipline you're teaching to help students focus their efforts. "I'm trying to find places where I can bring the reality of the discipline into the classroom. What does it mean for kids to become mathematicians and not just teach them math? What does it mean to teach them to do science and not learn about science? There's a subtle but powerful shift there," he suggests, "and the right way to teach comes out of the disciplines." Stephenson's award-winning Cigar Box Project demonstrates what happens "when kids actually become historians and interpret events from the past."

Develop Confidence

Project learning typically culminates with students sharing the results of their effort, often at a public event. How do you build students' presentation skills, as well as the confidence to exercise their voice? Anthony Armstrong, teaching in Tiburon, Calif., goes about this deliberately. He challenges his eighth graders with an activity he calls the "30-second blowhard." They discover that staying on topic for half a minute can be a challenge, especially when you're expected to make a cogent argument. And that's not all.

Armstrong asks each student to summarize the key points made by the previous speaker. That builds listening skills. Gradually, as students gain confidence and competence, the 30-second challenge expands to a couple minutes.

Build Some Buzz

When PL really takes hold, the benefits can extend in all sorts of unexpected directions. We call this the project spiral. Where can spirals go? Imagine a project that brings in collaborators from other schools -- or other countries. Picture community members connecting with students to solve real-world challenges. Think about the advantages when PL teachers form virtual communities to continue fine-tuning their practice.

These benefits won't happen in a vacuum, however. George Mayo from Silver Spring, Maryland, reminds us of the value of building buzz by getting student projects out into the world. He's an advocate of blogs as a tool for getting students to publicly reflect on their learning and invite reactions. Mayo also organizes a project called the Longfellow Ten, in which students from across the country create "absurd stop-motion films" to illustrate academic concepts. In his own community, Mayo organizes an annual film festival where students showcase their best filmmaking efforts -- and evidence of their expanding visual literacy -- with family and friends.

Establish the Right Context

Connie Weber teaches at an independent school in Ann Arbor, Michigan, that removes many of the typical barriers to the project approach. She enjoys small class sizes, gifted students, strong parental support, and even an on-campus nature center. But when we asked her about the key conditions for project success, she described a learning environment that could be replicated almost anywhere -- with the right care and attention. What's essential, she says, "is establishing the learning atmosphere, how the class feels." Instead of generating rules with her students, she invites them to "generate tendencies, [and] positive ways to be together."

Students warm right up to this request. Weber explains, "They suggest that they want each other to be nice, honest, respectful, patient; to have integrity and perseverance; to be safe to make mistakes and safe to share their views." She adds one more quality to the list: "It's important to play."

What does this feel like in practice? At the start of a project, Weber describes this moment:

"For the teacher, there's this giant letting go. Now, that requires some effort. I can see it in my mind -- it's me walking away, turning my back, going somewhere else, not allowing myself to hover. It's me communicating, 'I'm at your service,' and, 'May the force be with you.' It's me utterly and totally handing over the reins, come what may. The project is theirs."

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These are just a few of the insights shared during several weeks of inspiring conversations. And the good talk continues. Links to webinar recordings are posted in Classroom 2.0.

Thanks to Project Foundry for hosting this series, and to LearnCentral for providing the virtual meeting room through the site, Elluminate. Most of all, thanks to all the excellent teachers who have so generously shared their wisdom.

If you've been teaching with projects for a while, how have you fine-tuned your approach? If you're new to PL, what advice are you searching for? Please share your ideas -- and keep this conversation going.

Suzie Boss

Journalist and PBL advocate

Comments (46)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

George Cassutto's picture
George Cassutto
8th Grade Civics

15 years of technology projects in history and civics at my website. Sample:

The Civil Rights Movement:
A Black History celebration

Sue Boudreau's picture
Sue Boudreau
Seventh Grade science teacher from Orinda, California

Yes, also enjoyed Ken Robinson's older how-to book "Out of Our Minds - Learning to be Creative".

He talks about having to love the medium (content area or materials) and to have the time and permission to fail and try stuff a different way.

The TIME aspect is often so lacking from curriculum standards and plans. But by ruthlessly carving out time and shhh, not teaching every single standard, I make enough time for students to have enough time to learn from mistakes, and set a culture of celebrating overcoming adversity. That's a big deal in my high-achieving, wealthy community. But essential for us to have fun doing our Take Action Projects ( And essential for ME to have fun because if I'm not happy, ain't nobody happy in the class room!

Sue Boudreau's picture
Sue Boudreau
Seventh Grade science teacher from Orinda, California

Sorry messed up. Go to next post

Jennifer's picture

Many thanks for this article! As a teacher in training, I think I speak for many when I say that I have both great enthusiasm for project-based teaching and learning but also some apprehension as to the best ways to implement it in the classroom. The author, and the many teachers who have shared comments and resources here, offer some great guidelines for how to structure and get the most from this approach. Any suggestions on integrating cooperative learning and project-based teaching (or good resources to check out) would also be much appreciated!

Pat Ferryman's picture

I am trying to find out if the articles here shared are peer reviewed. I am starting to do the research on my dissertation and want to do standards based classrooms with project based lessons.

Amanda Youngblood's picture
Amanda Youngblood
English teacher in Florida experimenting with education

Shutting up and letting them go is something I'm just starting to try more and more (hard in a public school where you're expected to look like you're lecturing or something)... and I've never had so much fun as my kids step up and do things to learn in their own manner! It's the coolest thing I've done in a while. It's scary because it has the possibility of being a total train wreck, but when I let them take charge, more often than not, they run with it and expect their classmates to run with them. LOVE it! My 10th graders are writing a video game right now that will eventually teach the entire 10th grade literature curriculum. It was their idea. They're running it. They're doing it. It's fascinating and exciting! :)

Kathleen Cushman's picture
Kathleen Cushman
Author and speaker about lives and learning of youth; co-founder,

I'm excited to see this conversation develop! In the past two years I've been working with students around the country on the Practice Project, an initiative of What Kids Can Do ( that asked kids to investigate with me the question "What does it take to get really good at something?" As we explored how they learned the things they really cared about (often outside of school!), they made very clear that the "expert process" we were uncovering only showed up at school in one form: project-based learning. Our new book and blog (see is drawing teachers and students into dialogue about how "deliberate practice" at things that matter results in new habits of mind and work. I hope to keep hearing from you about your experiences of how projects build those habits, and hope you'll stop by to hear from the kids, as well!

Suzie Boss's picture
Suzie Boss
Journalist and PBL advocate

[quote]As we explored how they learned the things they really cared about (often outside of school!), they made very clear that the "expert process" we were uncovering only showed up at school in one form: project-based learning.[/quote]
Hi Kathleen,
I love the work of What Kids Can Do and can't wait to check out your new book. Interesting to hear that kids tell you they focus on what they really care about when they're away from school. If we could tap that motivation from 9-3, what a difference!

Bryan Horn's picture

Thanks for the great information on project learning. This is something I am implementing more and more in my classroom. Does anyone know of a resource for project based learning in foreign language? I teach high school Spanish and would love some more ideas for PBL but sometimes find it difficult to find resources for foreign language.

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