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Perfecting with Practice: Project-Based Teaching

Suzie Boss

Journalist and PBL advocate
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In project learning (PL), plans that look spectacular on paper can go awry when students enter the picture. During the implementation phase, students may decide to head in directions their teacher never anticipated.

Tensions can build if teams don't understand what it means to collaborate or share responsibility for project success. Creative problem solving can start to feel like classroom chaos. This is when the art of project-based teaching makes all the difference.

What if you're new to teaching with the project approach? Do you have to learn everything the hard way?

Fortunately, veteran PL teachers are only too happy to share their wisdom. For the past several weeks, I've had the pleasure of listening to educators talk about the nitty-gritty of projects. Colleague Jane Krauss and I just wrapped up hosting a series of webinars. (If you are interested, the discussion continues here.)

Here are just a few gems from this conversation, along with links to projects that will give you some new ideas to try with your students.

Get Minds Inquiring

Inquiry is at the heart of project learning, and PL veterans are deliberate about sparking student curiosity before a project actually begins. Some teachers leave clues in plain sight, encouraging students to do preliminary detective work that will fire up their curiosity. Others use opinion polls to ignite class discussions. Kevin Gant from the New Tech Network offers this sample question to lead into a physics project: "What's the better car: Dodge Viper or Shelby Cobra?" A class survey takes just a few minutes, Gant says, but, "time spent getting the students riled up about an issue is golden."

Lay a Foundation

The project approach challenges students to think for themselves, conduct research, solve authentic problems, meet deadlines, and manage much of their own learning. Experienced teachers don't take these skills for granted. They invest time to introduce students to the project process. Terry Smith from Hannibal, Missouri, uses the popular Monster Project to "get students into project mode" by negotiating decision making in small teams.

Before Sue Boudreau, teaching in Orinda, California, unleashes students on a complex project, she starts with a low-risk activity to teach process skills. She might ask students to think about all the steps associated with a familiar task, such as getting a meal ready for dinner guests. Then she has them work backwards from the dinner bell to figure out the project flow. Currently, Boudreau's middle school students are using their project skills to take on real-world science challenges through the Take Action Project.

Look to the Discipline for Cues

Where are the boundaries when students are pursuing open-ended questions? Neil Stephenson from Calgary, Alberta, suggests looking to the discipline you're teaching to help students focus their efforts. "I'm trying to find places where I can bring the reality of the discipline into the classroom. What does it mean for kids to become mathematicians and not just teach them math? What does it mean to teach them to do science and not learn about science? There's a subtle but powerful shift there," he suggests, "and the right way to teach comes out of the disciplines." Stephenson's award-winning Cigar Box Project demonstrates what happens "when kids actually become historians and interpret events from the past."

Develop Confidence

Project learning typically culminates with students sharing the results of their effort, often at a public event. How do you build students' presentation skills, as well as the confidence to exercise their voice? Anthony Armstrong, teaching in Tiburon, Calif., goes about this deliberately. He challenges his eighth graders with an activity he calls the "30-second blowhard." They discover that staying on topic for half a minute can be a challenge, especially when you're expected to make a cogent argument. And that's not all.

Armstrong asks each student to summarize the key points made by the previous speaker. That builds listening skills. Gradually, as students gain confidence and competence, the 30-second challenge expands to a couple minutes.

Build Some Buzz

When PL really takes hold, the benefits can extend in all sorts of unexpected directions. We call this the project spiral. Where can spirals go? Imagine a project that brings in collaborators from other schools -- or other countries. Picture community members connecting with students to solve real-world challenges. Think about the advantages when PL teachers form virtual communities to continue fine-tuning their practice.

These benefits won't happen in a vacuum, however. George Mayo from Silver Spring, Maryland, reminds us of the value of building buzz by getting student projects out into the world. He's an advocate of blogs as a tool for getting students to publicly reflect on their learning and invite reactions. Mayo also organizes a project called the Longfellow Ten, in which students from across the country create "absurd stop-motion films" to illustrate academic concepts. In his own community, Mayo organizes an annual film festival where students showcase their best filmmaking efforts -- and evidence of their expanding visual literacy -- with family and friends.

Establish the Right Context

Connie Weber teaches at an independent school in Ann Arbor, Michigan, that removes many of the typical barriers to the project approach. She enjoys small class sizes, gifted students, strong parental support, and even an on-campus nature center. But when we asked her about the key conditions for project success, she described a learning environment that could be replicated almost anywhere -- with the right care and attention. What's essential, she says, "is establishing the learning atmosphere, how the class feels." Instead of generating rules with her students, she invites them to "generate tendencies, [and] positive ways to be together."

Students warm right up to this request. Weber explains, "They suggest that they want each other to be nice, honest, respectful, patient; to have integrity and perseverance; to be safe to make mistakes and safe to share their views." She adds one more quality to the list: "It's important to play."

What does this feel like in practice? At the start of a project, Weber describes this moment:

"For the teacher, there's this giant letting go. Now, that requires some effort. I can see it in my mind -- it's me walking away, turning my back, going somewhere else, not allowing myself to hover. It's me communicating, 'I'm at your service,' and, 'May the force be with you.' It's me utterly and totally handing over the reins, come what may. The project is theirs."

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These are just a few of the insights shared during several weeks of inspiring conversations. And the good talk continues. Links to webinar recordings are posted in Classroom 2.0.

Thanks to Project Foundry for hosting this series, and to LearnCentral for providing the virtual meeting room through the site, Elluminate. Most of all, thanks to all the excellent teachers who have so generously shared their wisdom.

If you've been teaching with projects for a while, how have you fine-tuned your approach? If you're new to PL, what advice are you searching for? Please share your ideas -- and keep this conversation going.

Suzie Boss

Journalist and PBL advocate

Comments (46)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Jamie Fortman's picture

I am always excited to hear about the positive impact made by being a part of a Professional Learning Community (PLC). I am also a member of one and it has helped me grown in numerous ways. When looking at project learning, it is alwasys something that makes me a little nervous because it is so new and open. Since being on a PLC, I seem to be a little more comfortalble with project learning because I am more comfortable with it. I love doing inquiry based learning with my students, because it boosts the intrest and energy level of my students. During PLC meetings, we have norms and agendas that we make in order to keep ourselvels at a professional level of dialouge, and I have begun to use similar things with my students. I have found that when I use these managment strategies, students are more effective and on task. Thank you again for your post.

Lora Hall's picture

I think that project teaching and learning is a novel idea that I use in the classroom. However, I don't think that it is used much in the county that I work for.......can you provide me with teacher development that can be beneficial for presenting these ideas.

Suzie Boss's picture
Suzie Boss
Journalist and PBL advocate

Hi Lora,
I'm not sure what kind of professional development you have in mind, but for starters you might point your colleagues to the project learning resources here at Edutopia:
You'll find videos, articles, and even a self-guided module.
Intel also offers an online resource on designing projects:
Hope these resources spark ideas for good conversations with your colleagues.

Suzie Boss's picture
Suzie Boss
Journalist and PBL advocate

Hi Jamie,
Great to hear that you're making the connection between your PLC and the project approach. PLCs give teachers the opportunity to benefit from collaboration and group problem-solving. PLCs are also a natural place to find collaborators on projects that extend beyond your own classroom. These are the very practices we hope to see in student projects. Through your collaboration with colleagues, you become a role model for your students.

MAcuff's picture

Is anyone aware of any free (yeah, I know) or low cost web-based software? There are several using open-source, but they require a server and I work in a tech-stunted district. I have come across the EXPENSIVE flagship to be Project Foundry. Great for what I need, but WAAAAYYYYY over priced. Thanks.

Suzie Boss's picture
Suzie Boss
Journalist and PBL advocate

[quote]Is anyone aware of any free (yeah, I know) or low cost web-based software?[/quote]

You can get a lot accomplished by having students set up personal start pages (i.e., iGoogle or Pageflakes), and use these for tracking timelines, project milestones, resources, etc. This puts project management on their shoulders rather than yours, but that can be a good thing. Many teachers use a wiki to keep projects organized. You'll be able to see who's contributing, and when, by looking at the wiki history tab. ThinkQuest and ePals also offer platforms that could meet your needs. This story describes other project-management approaches taken by creative teachers:

Kathleen Cushman's picture
Kathleen Cushman
Author and speaker about lives and learning of youth; co-founder,

Suzie, to what address can I have the publisher send a copy of 'Fires in the Mind' (just out)? I'm excited to link to this great conversation on the blog--your discussion and links are a huge help to teachers who are seeking classroom answers to our big question, "What does it take to get really good at something?"

Suzie Boss's picture
Suzie Boss
Journalist and PBL advocate

Hi Kathleen,
Your new book sounds terrific. Barbara Cervone just got in touch about sending me a review copy, and I can't wait to see it. Look forward to growing this conversation.

Kathleen Cushman's picture
Kathleen Cushman
Author and speaker about lives and learning of youth; co-founder,

Terrific--I am planning to point people your way, your work is just what teachers need. Thanks for looking at the book and let's keep the conversation going! --Kathleen

Amy's picture

I feel that establishing the right atmosphere is crucial to learning. I don't have any experience with project based learning, but this blog helped me understand it better. There are many steps to making project learning successful, but I feel if implemented correctly project learning could be effective in any classroom.

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