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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

How to Keep Kids Engaged in Class

When students let their minds drift off, they're losing valuable learning time. Here are ten smart ways to increase classroom participation.
By Tristan de Frondeville
Credit: William Duke

Have you ever plunked yourself down in a staff meeting where some of your colleagues were, for lack of a better phrase, not paying attention? Grading homework? Having private conversations? Texting?

As we know all too well, kids aren't a whole lot different than adults: If they aren't absorbed by what's going on, they'll find something else that interests them.

Getting all your students focused, eager, and on task at the beginning of class is challenging enough. Equally problematic, once you have them locked in to the lesson, is watching them zone out. There's nothing unusual about that. After all, anyone who has to sit through a long routine -- including a teacher's presentation -- is bound to drift off at some point.

Still, unless you manage to capture and keep students' focus, whether at the beginning of or midway through class, the engine of student learning that you are trying to drive simply isn't even in gear.

From Dead Time to Active Learning

I call this lack of engagement dead time. Dead time interferes with students' learning, and it is contagious. It lures those who are on task into wondering, "Why should I pay attention if others aren't?"

I have come to feel that dead time is so pernicious that I will do everything I can to prevent even the hint of an outbreak. If you strive for maximum learning for all your students, then allowing kids to be stuck in dead time feels like a small betrayal -- to yourself and to them.

Active learning and active listening -- in which students are thoroughly and thoughtfully engaged with each other or the teacher -- represents the opposite of dead time. In their book Inspiring Active Learning, Merrill Harmon and Melanie Toth present a ladder that describes four levels of student motivation.

They call students at Level 4, the lowest level, the work avoiders, and on level 3 are the halfhearted workers. Near the top are responsible students, and, finally, come the fully active learners.

As a teacher and a project-learning consultant, I've always paid close attention to these levels of student engagement. I've discovered that it's difficult to keep students focused when the lesson comes from the teacher. But it can be equally difficult when they are engaged as project-learning teams, especially when the independence demanded by project learning is new to them.

Sometimes it's an individual on the team who can't seem to get involved; other times it's the entire group. Over the years, I've come up with a range of strategies to eliminate dead time and move students up the active-learning ladder.

Building Your Arsenal

Eliminating dead time starts with creating an arsenal of routines and activities. They can be general-purpose activities that apply to various subject areas or styles of teaching, or specific content-oriented activities that allow your students to learn by tapping into multiple intelligences beyond the usual listening and recalling.

Some are physical activities that help kids unleash pent-up energy, while others create private thinking time that encourages reflection. Or they can be well-managed student-to-student communication to guarantee that they are all thinking about the work.

Developing these activities initially takes time, but the payoff -- in terms of classroom management and overall learning -- is more than worth the effort. By building a storehouse of activities to draw on, I'm rarely at a loss to implement one of them to get kids back on track.

Not surprisingly, too, students get to know these strategies and look forward to them. I find they work at the beginning of class to calm kids down or any time they need an energizing way to refocus.

Credit: William Duke

10 Rules of Engagement

1. Start Class with a Mind Warm-Up

A classic warm-up is to ask students to find the mistakes planted in material written on the board. (You can use this idea in any subject area.) But instead of asking them to work silently and alone, and then debrief in a classic question-and-answer session with one student at a time (while many sit inattentively), use a mix of collaboration and competition to eliminate what could potentially become dead time.

Here's how: Organize teams of three students and ask them to work together (quietly) and raise their hands when they think they have found all the mistakes. After the first team signals it's done, give a bit more time and then have teams indicate with their fingers -- together on the count of three -- the number of mistakes they found in the work. The team that found the most describes its answers until another team disagrees politely or until they are finished.

2. Use Movement to Get Kids Focused

Ask all students to stand behind their desks and join in simple choreographed physical movement. Because most kids find it invigorating and it's easy to monitor full participation, it may become one of your favorite ways to get kids focused and kill dead time.

Here's how, for the primary grades: Teach hand-clapping patterns to accompany a chanted verse or a set of math facts. Add foot stomping or hand clapping with a partner to create variety.

Here's how, for the middle grades: Create a rhythm with finger snapping and hand clapping, which you model and they echo back. Vary the rhythm and pattern in intervals of 15-20 seconds to challenge them to pay attention and join in.

Here's how, for any grade, including high school: Offer a seventh-inning stretch, or the cross crawl. To do the cross crawl, stand up and begin marching in place, raising the knees really high. As you raise the left knee, reach across your body with your right hand and touch the left knee.

Then do the same for the left hand on the right knee. Continue this pattern for a minute or more. (You can also vary it by, say, having kids clap their hands over their heads between each set of knee touches.)

3. Teach Students How to Collaborate Before Expecting Success

Doing project learning and other team-based work without prior training can lead to lots of dead time. You can nip much of it in the bud by teaching collaboration skills before projects get started. You don't need to use an activity related to your subject area to teach teamwork.

Here's how: One way is to give teams of students a pair of scissors, two sheets of paper, ten paper clips, and a 10-inch piece of tape, and ask them to build the tallest free-standing tower in 20 minutes.

Prior to the activity, create a teamwork rubric with students, which reviews descriptions of desired norms and behaviors. While half of the teams are building the towers, have the other half of the students stand around them in a circular "fishbowl" as silent observers.

Debrief afterward, and train the observers to give a positive comment before a critical one: "I liked that they [blank], and I wonder if they could have also [blank]." Switch the observers with the tower builders and see if they can do better, then debrief again.

4. Use Quickwrites When You Want Quiet Time and Student Reflection

When interest is waning in your presentations, or you want to settle students down after a noisy teamwork activity, ask them to do a quickwrite, or short journal-writing assignment.

Here's how, for primary-grade students: Ask, "What was most interesting about [blank]?" "What was confusing about [blank]?" "What was the clearest thing you understood?" "What was boring about [blank]?" "What did [blank] make you think of in your life?"

Here's how, for intermediate-grade students and above: Try prompts such as the following, or develop your own: "Summarize what you have heard." "Predict an exam or quiz question I could ask based on this material." "Defend one of the positions taken during the prior discussion."

Teachers often avoid giving this type of assignment because assessing them regularly can be overwhelming. Manage this load by having students use a green (or other color) pen to circle one entry from the week you guarantee you will read.

Occasionally, have them write a few sentences next to their entry explaining why they want you to read that particular one. Let them know that you will read the passages marked in green and that, time permitting, you might read the rest if you have time.

5. Run a Tight Ship When Giving Instructions

Preventing dead time is especially important when giving instructions. There are a lot of great ways to ask for your students' attention, but many succeed or fail based on how demanding you are of the final outcome.

Whichever method you use, before you begin speaking, it is critical to require (1) total silence, (2) complete attention, and (3) all five eyeballs on you (two eyes on their face, two eyes on their knees, and the eyeball on their heart). I've done this approach with every class I've ever taught, and it makes a big difference. Knowledge Is Power Program (KIPP) middle schools include detailed SSLANT expectations: Smile, Sit up, Listen, Ask, Nod when you understand, and Track the speaker.

Here's how: When you introduce this routine to students, do it five times in a row: Announce that in a moment, you will briefly let them talk among themselves, and then you'll give them a signal (you can count out loud from one to three, ring a bell, and so on) and wait until they are perfectly ready for you to speak.

In the first two weeks after starting this routine, remind students often what's expected. To hold everyone accountable for listening the entire time, make it clear that you will never repeat your instructions after you have finished going over them.

6. Use a Fairness Cup to Keep Students Thinking

The more you can manage your classroom to be a supportive environment, where students are encouraged to take risks without fear of being put down or teased, the easier it will be to use your fairness cup regularly, without feeling that you are setting students up for failure.

Here's how: Write each student's name on a Popsicle stick and put the sticks in a cup. To keep students on their toes, pull a random stick to choose someone to speak or answer a question. Important: When you begin using your fairness cup, prepare a range of questions, some of which all your students can successfully answer. This strategy allows the bottom third of your class to get involved and answer questions without being put on the spot.

7. Use Signaling to Allow Everyone to Answer Your Question

To help ensure that all students are actively thinking, regularly ask questions to which everyone must prepare at least one answer -- letting them know you expect an answer. Then wait for all students to signal they are ready.

Here's how: For example, in math, you could ask, "How many ways can you can figure out 54-17 in your head? (Subtract 10 and then 7, subtract 20 and then add 3, and so on.) Or, to review a presentation, ask, "How many key points of this presentation are you prepared to describe?"

By asking questions that allow for multiple answers or explanations, you are differentiating instruction; everyone is expected to come up with at least one answer, but some may come up with more.

To convey the number of answers, students can use sign language, such as holding a hand to the chest (so their hands aren't visible to their neighbors) and displaying one or more fingers to represent how many answers they have. This technique precludes students from bragging about how many ideas they thought of or how quickly they are ready. You can then call on volunteers who want to share their answers with the rest of the class.

8. Use Minimal-Supervision Tasks to Squeeze Dead Time out of Regular Routines

Tasks that require minimal supervision add purposeful activity during moments that might normally revert to dead time. They come in handy when passing out papers, working with a small group of students, handling an unforeseen interruption, addressing students who didn't do their homework, or providing work to those who have finished an assignment before others.

Here's how: While you pass out papers, ask students to do a quickwrite (see #4) or to pair up and quiz each other on vocabulary words. Also, train students to fess up if they didn't do their homework. That way, during class homework review, these students won't automatically be in dead time. Instead, they'll immediately move to these prearranged minimal supervision tasks.

For example, you can ask them to study a review sheet, summarize a reading passage, read the day's assignment ahead of time, or create and study vocabulary words or other content. You might find students suddenly doing their homework more often rather than face this extra work.

9. Mix up Your Teaching Styles

To keep students involved and on their toes, try to move from teacher-centered learning to student-centered active learning, and vice versa.

Here's how: Introduce a presentation by having students pair up, talk to each other about their prior knowledge of the presentation, and generate a list of four questions for which they'll want to know the answers. Make quick rounds to remind all students to stay on task.

To encourage active listening, provide students with a list of important questions in advance. Interrupt the presentation with a quickwrite (see #4), and then have students "pair-share" by asking them to compare their entries with a neighbor. Pull sticks from your fairness cup (see #6) to choose pairs of students to present their thoughts to the class.

10. Create Teamwork Tactics That Emphasize Accountability

By insisting that students "ask three before me," you make it clear that they are expected to seek assistance from all members of their team before they turn to you.

Here's how: To reinforce this rule, when a student on a team wants to ask you a question, you, the teacher, always ask another person on the team whether she knows what the question is. If she doesn't, politely walk away, and the team will quickly understand what you expect.

Another way to emphasize accountability might be to say, "When you think your team is done with the task, find me within 30 seconds and tell me." This strategy shifts the accountability to the team for being on task.

Read another article from Tristan de Frondeville, "Ten Steps to Better Student Engagement," with ten strategies to increase student engagement.

Tristan de Frondeville, a former teacher, heads PBL Associates, a consulting company dedicated to project learning and school redesign.

Comments (100)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Elisabeth's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I really enjoyed your article. It has so many easy to implement ways to keep my second grade students engaged. I am printing it out so that I can refer back to it. I particularly like the use of quickwrites - a quick and efficient method of encouraging reflection (often missing as we switch to different topics)and a way for me to assess student understanding.
I also went to the Responsive Classroom website to see the Energizers video clips - too funny!

claudette yarbrough's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

This is an absolutely great article. I plan to share this article with all 33 of our teachers. A lot of this correlates with WONG and quite a few of the routines, procedures and strategies we attempt each year, however, the concise, easy-to-read way this article is written will definitely help teachers right away! Way to go, Tristan!

Stacey Brown-Downham's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I've been looking everywhere for physical warm-ups to use at the high school level...I'll definitely check this book out! THanks!

Stacey Brown-Downham
Special Education Teacher
Haddonfield Memorial High School
Haddonfield, NJ

Leigh Zeitz's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I have to agree with Sara. You did a great job of compiling 10 ways to keep kids engaged. I was particularly interested because I am trying to find the same sort of tricks for teaching University students. I already involve the students in stretching activities to keep their minds going, but I am going to try the faircup tonight.



makgotso mokiti's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Thank you for the article. I substitute teach and find it very difficult at times to get students to follow instructions. I think it is partly because I explain things differently than the classroom teacher would. I noticed that setting my expectations before class begins really helps. The SSLANT method seems as though it will work really well. It gives definite steps about what actions should be accurring to show me that the student is listening and paying attention. I have an assignment tomorrow. I will be using it.

Keep sharing.

Thanks again,
Makgotso Mokiti

Mary Kay Morrison's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

This is a great article-but missing one important element! HUMOR!

In my book, Using Humor to Maximize Learning, I detail the research about 2 important facets of engaged learning---the EMOTIONS and MOVEMENT. Humor uses both and kids love it!

I am passionate about bringing fun into the learning process--that is what engagement is about.

Check out my web site http://www.questforhumor.com/ for more ideas on how to use humor to engage kids in the learning process!

somia's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

its a very good article . it helps me to be a good teacher .
it makes work with children enjoyable .

Michelle's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I'm definitely not a teacher, but this article really expresses what students want! I remember in many of my classes, just thinking how much more fun a lesson could be if the teacher would only pep up a bit. Of course were not going to want to learn if you sound like you don't want to teach it.
For example, two classes last year: Chemistry vs English III. My chemistry teacher seemed bored by his own lessons, his voice very monotone and sleepy-sounding. We never did any labs like I expected, instead focused on powerpoints (soundless and picture-less). We had maybe two group activities through the entire year. I barely passed that class, and don't remember anything I learned. -_- My English teacher was very happy, loud, and enjoyed her lessons. We had plenty of group activities. I remember nearly every detail I learned in that class. Our projects usually included something for everyone, always incorporating a book or lesson we just went over. Students could act out scenes, make their own videos, write and read something aloud, make puzzles or games for the entire class, whatever the students creativity let them do. We also watched several movies, never boring interview movies... always movies that captivated our interests at the same time as learning. (Freedom Writers as an example.) And a particular lesson appealed to me, our last writing assignment of the year. We had to make a book of prose poetry or short stories of our lives. We had to use our imagination to decorate it or present it for the best grade. Everyone read one story from their book. Even our teacher. All the stories were very important to the person, and on that day everyone was connected; some stories (including our teachers') even made certain students cry/tear up.

Sadly, most high school classes are focused on shoving as much information as you can as fast you can - no time for games or relating to the subject. This sign in my Algebra II teachers' room said "Throw enough books, and something is bound to stick." I think it should be rephrased to: "Throw enough books, and they'll learn how to dodge it."

Great article, Tristan.

Tom Campbell's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Lots of good pedagogical tips in the article many from accelerated learning research. Wandering = Daydreaming and no teacher can mandate attention and get it from all learners all the time... if I am deeply puppyluvsick with a crush on the little red-headed girl or thinking about the Jonas Brothers, I'm going to miss all or part of the instructions some of the time.

We do want to request complete attention when giving instruction BUT a good teacher knows 100% compliance is unlikely. Instructions then need to be available in the learning space - posted in clear view - so the wanderers can get themselves back on track OR the teacher can direct them to the instructions as the other learners are working.

frances rice's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

In my masters program through Lesley U. the focus is multiple intelligences and integrating the arts. I just took a class on creative movement and kinesthetic learning. The research is out there to prove what most people know intuitively...movement is an essential part of learning. Whether you incorporate daily warm ups such as Brain Gym or Brain Dance, or use strategies such as the use of tableaux to summarize a concept or show the main idea from a reading selection; movement helps the brain connect to and reinforce learning.
The article has some great suggestions, and I am looking forward to investigating the listed resources! I think it is so wonderful to be able to read the reflections posted by both students and educators. It adds meaning to the reading and brings it off the page and into real world teaching!

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