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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation
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The realities of standardized tests and increasingly structured, if not synchronized, curriculum continue to build classroom stress levels. Neuroimaging research reveals the disturbances in the brain's learning circuits and neurotransmitters that accompany stressful learning environments. The neuroscientific research about learning has revealed the negative impact of stress and anxiety and the qualitative improvement of the brain circuitry involved in memory and executive function that accompanies positive motivation and engagement.

The Proven Effects of Positive Motivation

Thankfully, this information has led to the development of brain-compatible strategies to help students through the bleak terrain created by some of the current trends imposed by the Common Core State Standards and similar mandates. With brain-based teaching strategies that reduce classroom anxiety and increase student connection to their lessons, educators can help students learn more effectively.

In the past two decades, neuroimaging and brain-mapping research have provided objective support to the student-centered educational model. This brain research demonstrates that superior learning takes place when classroom experiences are relevant to students' lives, interests, and experiences. Lessons can be stimulating and challenging without being intimidating, and the increasing curriculum requirements can be achieved without stress, anxiety, boredom, and alienation as the pervasive emotions of the school day.

During my 15 years of practicing adult and child neurology with neuroimaging and brain mapping as part of my diagnostic tool kit, I worked with children and adults with brain function disorders, including learning differences. When I then returned to university to obtain my credential and Masters of Education degree, these familiar neuroimaging tools had become available to education researchers. Their widespread use in schools and classrooms globally has yet to occur.

This brain research demonstrates that superior learning takes place when classroom experiences are motivating and engaging. Positive motivation impacts brain metabolism, conduction of nerve impulses through the memory areas, and the release of neurotransmitters that increase executive function and attention. Relevant lessons help students feel that they are partners in their education, and they are engaged and motivated.

We live in a stressful world and troubled times, and that is not supposed to be the way for children to grow up. Schools can be the safe haven where academic practices and classroom strategies provide children with emotional comfort and pleasure as well as knowledge. When teachers use strategies to reduce stress and build a positive emotional environment, students gain emotional resilience and learn more efficiently and at higher levels of cognition.

Neuroimaging and EEG Studies

Studies of electrical activity (EEG or brain waves) and metabolic activity (from specialized brain scans measuring glucose or oxygen use and blood flow) show the synchronization of brain activity as information passes from the sensory input processing areas of the somatosensory cortex to the reticular activating and limbic systems. For example, bursts of brain activity from the somatosensory cortex are followed milliseconds later by bursts of electrical activity in the hippocampus, amygdala, and then the other parts of the limbic system. This data from one of the most exciting areas of brain-based learning research gives us a way to see which techniques and strategies stimulate or impede communication between the parts of the brain when information is processed and stored. In other words, properly applied, we can identify and remove barriers to student understanding!

The amygdala is part of limbic system in the temporal lobe. It was first believed to function as a brain center for responding primarily to anxiety and fear. Indeed, when the amygdala senses threat, it becomes over-activated. In students, these neuroimaging findings in the amygdala are seen with feelings of helplessness and anxiety. When the amygdala is in this state of stress-induced over-activation, new sensory information cannot pass through it to access the memory and association circuits.

This is the actual neuroimaging visualization of what has been called the affective filter by Stephen Krashen and others. This term describes an emotional state of stress in students during which they are not responsive to learning and storing new information. What is now evident on brain scans during times of stress is objective physical evidence of this affective filter. With such evidence-based research, the affective filter theories cannot be disparaged as "feel-good education" or an "excuse to coddle students" -- if students are stressed out, the information cannot get in. This is a matter of science.

This affective state occurs when students feel alienated from their academic experience and anxious about their lack of understanding. Consider the example of the decodable "books" used in phonics-heavy reading instruction. These are not engaging and motivating. They are usually not relevant to the students' lives because their goal is to include words that can be decoded based on the lesson. Decodability is often at the expense of authentic meaning to the child. Reading becomes tedious and, for some children, confusing and anxiety-provoking. In this state, there is reduced passage of information through the neural pathways from the amygdala to higher cognitive centers of the brain, including the prefrontal cortex, where information is processed, associated, and stored for later retrieval and executive functioning.

Additional neuroimaging studies of the amygdala, hippocampus, and the rest of the limbic system, along with measurement of dopamine and other brain chemical transmitters during the learning process, reveal that students' comfort level has critical impact on information transmission and storage in the brain. The factors that have been found to affect this comfort level such as self-confidence, trust and positive feelings for teachers, and supportive classroom and school communities are directly related to the state of mind compatible with the most successful learning, remembering, and higher-order thinking.

The Power of Joyful Learning

The highest-level executive thinking, making connections, and "aha" moments of insight and creative innovation are more likely to occur in an atmosphere of what Alfie Kohn calls exuberant discovery, where students of all ages retain that kindergarten enthusiasm of embracing each day with the joy of learning. With current research and data in the field of neuroscience, we see growing opportunities to coordinate the design of curriculum, instruction, and assessment in ways that will reflect these incredible discoveries.

Joy and enthusiasm are absolutely essential for learning to happen -- literally, scientifically, as a matter of fact and research. Shouldn't it be our challenge and opportunity to design learning that embraces these ingredients?

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Martha's picture

That is wonderful news! Would you be interested in speaking at a National Montessori Conference?

Zaileen Cipriano's picture

I like the way the author writes this article. I can relate to it. I"m now in my second year in college and I know how stressful it is to be a student. At times, I become anxious and pressured by the bulk of school works. And sometimes too much standard imposed contributes to a stressful learning atmosphere. And this truly affects my performance in school. I agree that it is important that we should enjoy as we learn. By enjoying, we are releasing positive emotions that can make learning better and meaningful.
It is also a helpful tool for me as a future teacher. Thank you.;)

weechva's picture

Thank you, Dr. Willis, for this updated article on learning and neurobiology. I enjoyed your chapter in Dr. Sousa's book, Brain, Mind, & Education (Willis, 2010). I am interested in attachment theory as it relates to learning and your information on the comfort level, or the subjective understanding of the total environment continues to interest me. Thank you very much. I may also write an email to you and formally introduce myself in the near future.
Willis, J. (2010). The current impact of neuroscience on teaching and learning. In D. A. Sousa (Ed.), Mind, Brain, and Education (pp. 45-66). Bloomington. IN: Solution Tree Press.

Richard's picture
Richard
Teacher of English as a Foreign Language.

I have worked in education as a Primary teacher and later as a Community Mental Health Nurse.
My experience working with people of all ages has helped me to develop strategies to de-stress students as they learn English as a foreign language in the school which I co-own.
I am pleased to read this article which provides evidence for what I believe is the best approach to care for our students. Individualised care and support through continuous assessment rather than final exams.
The model is this. Children love to learn and therapeutic educational relationships may be developed to inspire them to succeed and maximise their potential. Happy faces entering and leaving their classes and 100% retention convinces me we are on the right track.

Heather Hollis's picture

What a wonderful article! I am currently writing a book about the importance of joy, humour, empathy and conviction in the classroom. I love the fact that your research backs up much of what I, and many of my colleagues, instinctively understand about children and learning.

Julie Porter's picture

Heather, is there a way to get on a list to be notified when your book is available?

Heather Hollis's picture

Sure! I don't quite know how it works (first time, newbie author) but I'll make it note in my notes to let you know. I'm working Pembroke but we are just getting started so I don't know when it will be ready. Thank you for the interest. Your research really fits in with everything I believe about teaching and learning.

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