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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

Editor's note: This post is co-authored by Marcus Conyers who, with Donna Wilson, is co-developer of the M.S. and Ed.S. Brain-Based Teaching degree programs at Nova Southeastern University. They have written several books, including Five Big Ideas for Effective Teaching: Connecting Mind, Brain, and Education Research to Classroom Practice.

Incorporating exercise and movement throughout the school day makes students less fidgety and more focused on learning. Improving on-task behavior and reducing classroom management challenges are among the most obvious benefits of adding physical activities to your teaching toolkit. As research continues to explore how exercise facilitates the brain's readiness and ability to learn and retain information, we recommend several strategies to use with students and to boost teachers' body and brain health.

Like "Miracle-Gro for the Brain"

Exercise may have both a physiological and developmental impact on children's brains. Physical mechanisms include:

  • Increased oxygen to the brain that may enhance its ability to learn
  • Alterations to neurotransmitters
  • Structural changes in the central nervous system

In fact, John Ratey, author of A User's Guide to the Brain, calls exercise "Miracle-Gro for the brain" because of its role in stimulating nerve growth factors.

Studies suggest that regular physical activity supports healthy child development by improving memory, concentration and positive outlook. For example, researchers found that children who had an opportunity to run 15-45 minutes before class were less distracted and more attentive to schoolwork. These positive effects lasted two to four hours after their workouts.

The connection between learning and exercise seems to be especially strong for elementary school students. Given these findings, cutting back on physical education with the aim of improving academic performance, as some districts have done or may be considering, is likely to be counterproductive.

Pump Up Your Brain with Regular Exercise

Regular physical activity is an essential component for maintaining body and brain health for people of all ages. A recent study involving 120 people found that walking briskly 30-40 minutes a day three times a week helped to "regrow" the structures of the brain linked to cognitive decline in older adults. The effect was the equivalent of stopping the brain's aging clock by one to two years. This is one of the first scientifically controlled studies showing the power of exercise in boosting brain regeneration. As we share with educators in our programs, physical activity before, during and after school is smart for your heart, body and brain. "Exercise is really for the brain, not the body," Ratey contends in a WebMD article. "It affects mood, vitality, alertness and feelings of well-being."

By incorporating movement and physical activity into the school day, you can support student learning in a variety of ways:

Start the Day with Movement

Many teachers we know start the school day with exercises such as jumping jacks, arm crosses and stretches. Kim Poore, who teaches K-5 students with behavioral and emotional disorders in South Carolina's Lancaster County Public School District, tells us that her class has led the school in a morning warm-up routine broadcast to classrooms over closed-circuit TV.

Enhance Attention During and Between Lessons

Incorporating short exercise or stretch breaks into lessons can resharpen children's focus on learning. Especially for younger students, dividing lessons into 8-20 minute "chunks" punctuated with activities that involve movement keeps their attention on learning and helps make the content more memorable. Exercise and stretch breaks also work well during transitions between lessons.

Ms. Poore says that one of her students' favorite ways to prepare for tests is with "Snowball." She writes a test review question on a piece of paper, wads it into a paper ball, and tosses it to a student who opens the paper, responds to the question and tosses it back. "It is a fresh and effective way to reach these kids," she says.

Engage the Senses

Our brains receive input from our visual, tactile, auditory and olfactory senses, allowing us to engage with the rest of the world. Incorporating activities that involve all the senses can make learning more memorable. Joe Frank Uriz, who teaches Spanish at Parsons Elementary School in Gwinnett County, Georgia, says, "Sensory experiences are an important aspect of learning."

Mr. Uriz doesn't just teach third graders the Spanish words for fruits. He introduces the tropical fruits of the Americas in a "mystery box" activity that adds tactile, smell and taste experiences to learning. And he makes the most of the power of music and movement to reinforce what students are learning with a clapping chant song called "Frutas."

Spanish teacher Joe Uriz engages students' senses with a mystery box activity.

Credit: Donna Wilson & Marcus Conyers

Play Games

Teaching lessons as active games also enhances attention and memory. How about a kinesthetic spelling bee in which teams of students spell vocabulary words by positioning their bodies in the shapes of letters?

What physical activities do you incorporate into your lessons? Please tell us about them in the comments section below.

References and Resources

Articles from the Journal of Play and WebMD present some of the research on exercise and learning.

This list of BrainBreaks offers additional ideas on movement during the school day. For more information on the body-brain connection, see Chapter 5 of Five Big Ideas for Effective Teaching: Connecting Mind, Brain, and Education Research to Classroom Practice.

Comments (43)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Richard Henning's picture
Richard Henning
Marketing Director at Northeast Foundation for Children

Great post Donna. It makes so much sense. Allow me to recommend a great resource book from Responsive Classroom--Energizers! 88 Quick Movement Activities That Refresh and Refocus.

Heidi Butkus's picture
Heidi Butkus
Kindergarten Teacher and Owner & Founder of HeidiSongs.com

I don't see a way to sign up for email updates to your blog in general- only ways to sign up to email updates to the comments. Am I missing something?

Samer Rabadi's picture
Samer Rabadi
Online Community Manager

Hi Heidi,

We hope to eventually implement a way for people to follow others on Edutopia, but it's not something we'll see in the near future. In the meantime, you can find all of Donna's blog posts by looking at her profile. Just click on her name or use the following link:


Marcus Conyers's picture
Marcus Conyers
Co-developer of Masters and Ed.S. Degree Programs in Brain-Based Teaching

Hi Heidi,
Thanks for your comments.


Donna Wilson, Ph.D.'s picture
Donna Wilson, Ph.D.
Developer of Masters and Ed.S. Degree Programs in Brain-Based Teaching


Thank you! You may have seen our comments to Jamie in the comment section of our 'Neuroplasticity' article from several weeks ago. I've just copied and pasted below because I thought you might like use bits of it with your kinders. You might enjoy either using it to teach your students about the brain's amazing plasticity generally, or connect for them that when they move their brains are learning better! If you are in the LA area currently, I'm speaking on this topic and young children next Monday 8-9 at ASCD.

Keep up the good work! Donna

1. Speak with an excited voice about how each of us has a brilliant brain that gets smarter every time we learn something.

2. Use colorful pipe cleaners to illustrate how learning creates new connections in the brain.

3. Illustrate that each brain is as unique as a fingerprint.

4. When your kindergarten students are excited about learning something, they can give their brains a kiss by kissing their fingertips and touching their heads.

5. Most importantly, explicitly model your own excitement about how your own brain is modeling new things every day! Watch for the magic of imitation!

Jerry Turcotte "Animal Man"'s picture
Jerry Turcotte "Animal Man"
On a mission to energize kids & families on a Positive Fitness Trajectory!

I humbly submit Exercise Like The Animals A to Z to address the need exposed by this article. The eBook in the classroom helps teachers to meet the fitness - physical and intellectual - needs of their students. Exercise with a educational kicker!

Shalmar's picture

This is great. Reminds me of wt Bruce Lee once said, "be water my friend. Water can either flow, or crash. Be water." There is no known limitations when the forces of life are understood by the mind.

Marcus Conyers's picture
Marcus Conyers
Co-developer of Masters and Ed.S. Degree Programs in Brain-Based Teaching

Hi Shalmar,

Thanks for your comment and your quote from Bruce Lee. There is good evidence that learning martial arts helps students to become more focused and more skilled at self-management. In my high school years I enjoyed Karate and Judo.


Troy's picture

Great article. I tutor students and use boxing gloves and mitts to get the blood flowing while practicing math facts or other memorized material. I call out the fact and the student gives the answer with the cadence of the punches. It also provides cross-lateral movement.

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