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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

My last post was also about instructional coaching and I started it off by stating that in order for instructional coaching to work, the conditions must be right. A reader asked, in the comments, what exactly are those conditions and how do you know if they're right?

At any school, each condition is probably in some state of development; you want to get a sense of where a school is in each area and then evaluate the overall picture. So here are four conditions that a prospective instructional coach might want to assess:

Condition #1: School culture. For a coach to effectively partner with teachers and support them in developing their practice, the school culture needs to be oriented towards growth and improvement. Teachers, as well as administrators, need to see themselves as learners, eager and capable of improving their practice when given support. In order to assess a school's culture, it can help to attend staff meetings and talk to individuals, listening for the overall tone of how challenges are approached. You want to hear a dominant message that the staff feels that the problems are within their sphere of influence, that they have the power to improve the problems.

If challenges are seen along the lines of: "these kids don't behave well, don't speak English, come from broken homes, don't bring their homework," the school's culture is not at a place where coaching can easily take root. Shifting a culture from this place will take a team lead by a strong leader.

Condition #2: Structures for collaboration. For coaching to be effective, a school needs to have established time and structures for collaboration. Coaches usually work with teachers individually as well as with teams of teachers, and in fact, research has shown that when coaches work with teams there is a greater impact on teacher practice. Teachers need to be interested in and willing to work together; their doors need to be wide open, or at least cracked. Coaching can't be effective in isolation -- it must be nestled within other learning structures such as inquiry teams or professional learning communities that are guided and rigorous.

Condition #3: The principal's view of coaching. In order for coaching to be effective, a coach needs a close partnership with the principal. He must see you as someone to collaborate with; he must also have a fairly clear vision of what a coach does. If you're considering a coaching position, talk to the principal and ask about his vision for coaching. What does he expect you'll be able to do in a year? What will be your roles and responsibilities? How will your work be focused and what will you be accountable for? How does he intend to work with you and support you? Does he see you as a savior, able to transform mediocre teaching practice overnight? Does he intend to deploy you or will you work together to determine how you'll coach, whom you'll coach, and what will be expected?

You want to get an overall sense of what the principal knows and understands about coaching and how he intends to utilize you. It's critical to remember that coaching can't be mandated -- so listen for any indicators that this might be the plan. You also want to get a sense of how the principal plans on bringing you into the role -- are teachers aware that a coach might come on board? How do they feel about that? Are they participating in the selection process? Does the principal anticipate pushback to coaching? How will he negotiate that? If you're considering taking a coaching job at a site, be sure to have a number of in-depth conversations with the principal. You need to feel that you can work closely and well with that leader.

Condition #4: Professional development for coaches. Perhaps the most critical condition for coaching to work is that an organization sees itself as a place where everyone is a learner. So if you're considering an instructional coaching job, inquire about the opportunities you'll have for your own professional development. This is absolutely essential to your effectiveness, as well as health and sanity. You will desperately need a place where you can be a learner and colleagues with whom you can discuss the challenges you're facing. You might need to set up these structures yourself -- but you need to have a sense of whether you can do this.

Are there other coaches in the school or in the district? Are there networks or professional learning communities of coaches that you can hook into? Or can you imagine ways that you can facilitate your own learning by reading books, examining your practice, and attending trainings? The impact you have on teachers will be many times greater if you are learning about your practice while coaching.

Although these conditions may not be entirely present in a school, it's critical that they exist to some degree. If one of these conditions is completely missing, coaching can be very challenging.

Comments (10)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Carol Sliwka's picture
Carol Sliwka
Secondary ELA Consultant in Michigan

What professional resources would you recommend for coaches--books, training, websites?

Dr. David Stegall's picture
Dr. David Stegall
Associate Superintendent

The Handbook for SMART school teams by Solution Tree
Instructional Coaching by Jim Knight
Leading Change in your School by Reeves
Learning by Doing by DuFour, DuFour, Eaker and Many
The Five Dysfunctions of a Team by Lencioni
Classroom Instruction that works by Marzano
Learning Together, Leading Together by Hord
www.allthingsplc.com

Rey Carr's picture

One of the best books, if not the best book, no coaching in schools is Bob & Megan Tschannen-Moran's Evocative Coaching: Transforming Schools One at a Time. (Available from their information website http://evocativecoaching.com/ and other book sources.) Their ideas underscore the importance of the conditions outlined in this article by Elena Aguilar.

Sherri Martin's picture
Sherri Martin
Director of Professional Development - Chapel Hill-Carrboro City Schools

I would ditto Dr. Stegall's list and add Unmistakable Impact: A Partnership Approach for Dramatically Improving Instruction by Jim Knight.

Ellen Eisenberg's picture
Ellen Eisenberg
Executive Director of the Pennsylvania Institute for Instructional Coaching

Enabling conditions are essential for any successful instructional coaching model. As Executive Director of the PA Institute for Instructional Coaching (www.pacoaching.org), we have found that sharing a vision for school wide success and communicating that vision in collaborative ways are critical elements for school improvement. Instructional coaches help teachers and administrators support reflective practice and talk about increasing student engagement and improving student achievement in no-risk environments.
There are several resources included in the www.instituteforinstructionalcoaching.org website that will help inform instructional coaching and evidence-based literacy practices.

John Bennett's picture
John Bennett
Emeritus Faculty in the School of Engineering / University of Connecticut

To me, coaching implies that attention will be paid to the needs of the team, meaning needs of team members. To do this, the coach needs to hear what those needs are (and I expect hearing and identifying with the needs will help very much with teacher buyin - agreeing this is critical to any success). I presume this is a significant regular responsibility of all coaches; otherwise, a coach is just another PD deliverer.

Another confusing point: for Condition #1, I honestly believe the list given of "contributing problems" suggested to be outside coaching efforts most likely are ones that will prevent improved learning; how can it be called coaching if such problems are not considered? Teachers do have to deal with them.

Mike Rulon's picture
Mike Rulon
Consultant, Instructional Coach, Turn-around Facilitator

Working as a teacher, coach, and someone who has trained coaches I cannot agree more with Ms, Agular, and all of the comments.
I am currently working in a turn-around school in Boston and I am confident we are well on the way to becoming a huge success story. We have instituted PLC's and have resources of several instructional and content coaches. The leadership has been foundational in the change and success of the coaching. The teachers are open to collaboration and in rolling up their sleeves and diving into the work.
One element that I have found essential, but not mention is the opportunity for teacher leadership in the functioning of the teams, and in the work. We have developed Lab Classrooms, and even though our coaches work with teachers in teams and individually, we recognized the need to build capacity, and allow our coaches to focus additional resources towards the development of teacher leaders.
It is going better than expected.

Elena Aguilar's picture
Elena Aguilar
Transformational Leadership Coach from Oakland, California
Blogger

[quote]What professional resources would you recommend for coaches--books, training, websites?[/quote]

Are you looking for resources about coaching?
I agree with the recommendation for Evocative Coaching - it's probably my favorite on coaching.
I also really like Renewal Coaching by Elle Allison and D. Reeves. The authors of these books also offer trainings and more - see their websites.
In the Bay Area, the National Equity Project offers a wonderful institute on coaching - see their website for more info.
I also like Masterful Coaching by Robert Hargrove.
Aside from books on coaching, I'd suggest many of those listed by Dr. Stegall as well as others on change management, adult learning, and systems thinking. But it really depends on your context and what kind of work you're doing.

Elena Aguilar's picture
Elena Aguilar
Transformational Leadership Coach from Oakland, California
Blogger

[quote]Working as a teacher, coach, and someone who has trained coaches I cannot agree more with Ms, Agular, and all of the comments.

I am currently working in a turn-around school in Boston and I am confident we are well on the way to becoming a huge success story. We have instituted PLC's and have resources of several instructional and content coaches. The leadership has been foundational in the change and success of the coaching. The teachers are open to collaboration and in rolling up their sleeves and diving into the work.

One element that I have found essential, but not mention is the opportunity for teacher leadership in the functioning of the teams, and in the work. We have developed Lab Classrooms, and even though our coaches work with teachers in teams and individually, we recognized the need to build capacity, and allow our coaches to focus additional resources towards the development of teacher leaders.

It is going better than expected.[/quote]

Thank you for sharing this, Mr. Rulon! We need all the success stories we can get.

Mike Rulon's picture
Mike Rulon
Consultant, Instructional Coach, Turn-around Facilitator

If you would like resources on gradual release of control model coaching Jim Knight at Kansas University has books and trainings..... Cognitive Coaching... Art Costa

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