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The Flipped Classroom: Pro and Con

Mary Beth Hertz

K-8 Technology Teacher in Philadelphia, PA
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I recently attended the ISTE conference in San Diego, CA. While I was only there for about 36 hours, it was easy for me to pick up on one of the hottest topics for the three-day event. The "flipped classroom" was being discussed in social lounges, in conference sessions, on the exhibit floor, on the hashtag and even at dinner. People wanted to know what it was, what it wasn't, how it's done and why it works. Others wanted to sing its praises and often included a vignette about how it works in their classroom and how it transformed learning for their students. Still others railed that the model is nothing transformative at all and that it still emphasizes sage-on-the-stage direct instruction rather than student-centered learning. I engaged in a few of these discussions offline and online, and while I'm still on the fence about my feelings toward the model, I can offer some insight and interpretation.

What It Is

According to the description on ASCD's page for the newly released book, Flip Your Classroom: Reach Every Student in Every Class Every Day, by flipped-classroom pioneers Aaron Sams and Jonathan Bergmann, "In this model of instruction, students watch recorded lectures for homework and complete their assignments, labs, and tests in class." In part one of a three-part series of articles, Bergmann, along with two co-authors, tries to dispel some of the myths surrounding the flipped classroom. For instance, they state that the flipped classroom is NOT "a synonym for online videos. When most people hear about the flipped class all they think about are the videos. It is the interaction and the meaningful learning activities that occur during the face-to-face time that is most important."

The authors go on to explain that the model is a mixture of direct instruction and constructivism, that it makes it easier for students who may have missed class to keep up because they can watch the videos at any time. The argument also goes that since students watch most teacher lectures at home and are receiving instruction as homework, they can spend class time working through any gaps or misunderstandings around the content with the teacher acting as "guide on the side." Another flipped classroom educator, Brian Bennett, wrote a post explaining that the model is not about the videos, but about the learning. I had a chance to talk to Brian at ISTE, and it was great to hear him express his thoughts about the model in more than 140 characters. He also runs the #flipclass chat on Twitter every Monday night, which is a great chance to learn more about the model.

What It Isn't

As with any new fad or trend, there are plenty of people trying to either use the model to make money or jump on the bandwagon without really understanding what they are joining. For instance, the company TechSmith has an entire part of their site dedicated to the flipped-classroom model. Now, I happen to think that TechSmith makes great products and are pretty good at keeping a finger on the pulse of education. However, it's no secret why TechSmith, who creates screencasting software, would be interested in the flipped-classroom approach. For what it's worth, their site does focus mostly on methodology and pedagogy, and they have consulted educators for most of their content. What is disconcerting to me is to hear vendors on the exhibit floor at ISTE talking about how their product will help you "flip your class." If I were your average principal or tech director walking around the exhibit hall without much knowledge of the model, or a misconception of the model, I could really end up getting the wrong information.

I have often seen and heard the Khan Academy come up in discussions around the flipped classroom. (I can hear a vendor saying, "With our amazing display quality, your students can watch videos in crisp detail!") While some teachers profess to using KA videos to present content to their students, the idea is not that KA will replace the teacher or replace the content as a whole. From my experience with KA, the content is taught in only one way. Good instruction, especially for math concepts, requires that ideas be presented in a number of ways. In addition, not all math is solving equations. One of the hardest parts about teaching math is making sure that students are not blindly solving equations without really understanding what they are doing with the numbers. For students to be successful on their own, videos used in the flipped-classroom model must include a variety of approaches in the same way a face-to-face lesson would, and they must also have good sound and image quality so that students can follow along easily. These videos must also match the curriculum, standards and the labs or activities the students will complete in class.

Why It Works

Most of the blog reflections I have read and the conversations I have followed point to the way that the flipped classroom has truly individualized learning for students. Teachers describe how students can now move at their own pace, how they can review what they need when they need to, and how the teacher is then freed up to work one-on-one with students on the content they most need support with. They also point to the ability for students to catch up on missed lessons easily through the use of video and online course tools like Edmodo or Moodle.

Why It Doesn't Work

When I first started learning about the flipped-classroom model, my immediate reaction was, "This won't work with my students." This continues to be an argument made by a lot of rural and urban teachers. Our students just don't have the access required for the model to really work. I've had people tell me, "They can use the public library." To which I explain that there are usually three computers available and there is usually a 30-minute limit per user. I've had people tell me, "You can burn DVDs that they can watch in their DVD players." To which I ask how much of the day can a teacher devote to burning at least 10-15 DVDs at a time? I've also been told that students can use the school computer lab after school to watch the videos. To which I explain that we have only 27 computers available for the whole school, and that it would require an after school program to be put into place. (This last option, by the way, is the most realistic.) Another tough sell for me is the fact that if everyone starts flipping their classrooms, students will end up sitting in front of a screen for hours every night as they watch the required videos. And as many teachers can tell you, not everyone learns best through a screen.

Why It's Nothing New

Listening to Aaron Sams talk about his experience with the flipped-classroom model, one can't help but imagine that what he is describing doesn't require video at all. What he describes is, in essence, what John Dewey described at the turn of the 20th century: learning that is centered around the student, not the teacher; learning that allows students to show their mastery of content they way they prefer. These are not new concepts. I am often brought back to the question: "Are we doing things differently or doing different things?" As educators around the globe try to flip their class, it's an important thing to reflect on.

Why It Matters

So in the end, why should we care so much about the flipped-classroom model? The primary reason is because it is forcing teachers to reflect on their practice and rethink how they reach their kids. It is inspiring teachers to change the way they've always done things, and it is motivating them to bring technology into their classrooms through the use of video and virtual classrooms like Edmodo and similar tools. As long as learning remains the focus, and as long as educators are constantly reflecting and asking themselves if what they are doing is truly something different or just a different way of doing the same things they've always done, there is hope that some of Dewey's philosophies will again permeate our schools. We just need to remember that flipping is only the beginning.


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Brian E. Bennett's picture
Brian E. Bennett
High school science teacher in South Bend, IN.

Alizabeth, that's a great point. If the infrastructure isn't there to support learning, then flipping probably isn't a good idea...we're setting kids up to fail.

In reply to the time comment, however, I just wanted to point out that many teachers flipping keep their videos to less than 10 minutes. I'm not arguing that every class should flip, that's totally up to the teacher. But, the "hours of lecture" is usually a myth when it comes to reasons not to flip.

Mario Patiño's picture
Mario Patiño
NBCT, science educator

25 years ago my civics teacher assigned us to watch and analyze national news broadcast. The next class period we would have discussions on what we learned. This was all before the internet of course, so the idea of giving independent work to increase/enhance face:face time is not new. Although today we have more technology tools at our disposal, most are not needed to drive or enhance learning.
Do you really need infrastructure to "flip" your course? Like any pedagogical strategy, "flipping" your course is grounded in education philosophy. If your philosophy is student centered and promotes self directed learning flipping your course can happen with or without the infrastructure.

Heidi A. Olinger's picture
Heidi A. Olinger
Educator, Social Entrepreneur + Founder of Pretty Brainy, Inc.

Regarding Alizabeth's points, I am compelled to share a solution one of my colleagues employs. He and leaders at his school are very keen on the flipped classroom because of the outcomes they are seeing, including a boost in student engagement. But because some of his middle school social studies students face issues similar to what Alizabeth points out, he works with students (and staff) to build computer access into the school day.
Despite schedules, financial means, extracurricular activities and so on, each student is connected to the recorded lesson material at school preparatory to class time. The whole point of the flipped classroom is that it is an opportunity for educators to provide students individualized attention and instruction in class, no? My example is just about one teacher who is being creative with students' at-school time in order to make it work.

By the way, can anyone cite examples of educators who are feeling recharged in their approach to teaching thanks to the flipped model?

Laurie H's picture
Laurie H
High school math teacher from California

Another option: have them read printed material on the subject and come in prepared to discuss it and/or do a written assignment. I'm a math teacher and I am planning to use a livescribe pen which I can email to students as an interactive pdf. So, they see the notes and hear my voice, much like a khan academy lesson (but there are not a lot of color choices). However, they are also able to print the notes, which can't be done with video. This also allows me to pre-print the notes for anyone who needs them and they can take them home to study. In every case, I plan to give students a comprehension assignment that connects to the presentation or notes.

Generally, this approach is still reliant upon internet/computer access outside the classroom, I know. However, I think there are ways to adapt the lessons so that students study the material before coming to class, then the main points are reviewed and an assignment or assignments can be begun and hopefully completed during class. Assignments can be individual or group/partner or a little bit of both.

Students could review a text section and take notes on it, read assigned pages, or review a handout with a short question and answer portion attached outside of class and then come in to class with questions.

In a couple of weeks, I will have a blog set up where anyone can post ideas and questions. I'll come back to this article and post the link. I'd love to know what successes and hurdles we are all facing as we attempt to incorporate this approach in our classes.

I have loved the few flipped lessons I've done and I had students fill out feedback forms afterwards. They seemed to love it too. They gave good suggestions for improvement including a formal review of the material at the start of class (also a great technique for kids who didn't complete the assignment for whatever reason) and examples that directly pertain to the types of math problems they needed to solve. [I had students review khan academy and brightstorm videos - I didn't create my own. There were problems with that approach in that notation and some formula details differed from what was used in the text. So, this year I will use a combination of pre-created videos and some of my own with the livescribe pen and other free resources available.]

Candice's picture
Sixth grade math, science and social studies teacher from Pittsburgh, PA

I have been contemplating flipping my math classroom. When my principal first presented this new idea at a faculty meeting, I was skeptical yet intrigued. I too thought about the students in my classroom that would not be able to access the videos on the Internet. However, I was loving the idea that I would have more class time to differentiate instruction and actually work through practice math problems and dig deeper than just "solve this problem" type problems.
I have tried a few "flipped" lessons but have not done the full flip. Can anyone give me advice or insight into how you run the class time that you have after the students watch the video/read the notes at home? I am specifically interested in any advice on incorporating small, differentiated group activiites or project based learning? Also, what are some ways that you assess learning and mastery of the skills?

Wowzers's picture
Wowzers offers online Game-based Math curriculum for Grades 3-8

As always in education, schools and classrooms are forced to adapt strategies and learning methods to fit their environment and demographics. Why should the 'flipped classroom' be any different?

The main advantage of flipped classrooms is to offer students the ability to self-learn the concepts via digital resources. We believe students can do this within the classroom as well! With the correct content, students can self-learn the needed content and concepts right in the classroom (or at home), while the teacher scaffolds and further develops these newly-learned ideas.

To learn more about how digital learning content can be utilized to build a flipped classroom within school walls, check out this blog post -

Sheri's picture
8th Grade MathTeacher

Our district is in the process of converting to flipped lessons. We have one Middle School that began this year. The other Middle Schools will begin next year. We have received positive feedback from the Math Coaches, so I am looking forward to the implementation. Each Math teacher has a computer lab attached to their room with approximately 30 computers, so access to technology is not a problem. My only concern is are those students who take the bus and have to eat breakfast once they arrive...when will they find the time? Aside from that, I look forward to being able to do more of the hands-on pieces in the classroom rather than for homework!

Matthew Selinger's picture
Matthew Selinger
Physics and math teacher.

I have considered flipping, at least partially, but I would not be able to do it as a whole. I think it would be a nice alternative for some but difficult to implement in my district where access to the internet is an issue still. Thank you for the nice article.

Jenn's picture

Hi, I was just wondering if you have examples and/or links to your examples? Thank you for taking the time for this review of the proccess. I found it very interesting. -Jenn

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