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Defining Differentiated Instruction

| Rebecca Alber

Updated 01/2014

When I lesson plan with teachers, out of earshot from their fellow teachers and their principals, I can't tell you how often I'm asked, "what exactly does it look like?" when it comes to differentiated instruction.

In the education world, differentiated instruction is talked a lot about as a policy or as a solution, but rarely do educators get opportunities to roll up their sleeves and talk about what it looks like in practice.

The definition begins with this: Equal education is not all students getting the same, but all students getting what they need. Approaching all learners the same academically doesn't work. We have to start where each child is in his learning process in order to authentically meet his academic needs and help him grow. With a classroom full of children at different stages of learning, this certainly sounds overwhelming, I know. So I'd like to suggest a place to begin and provide some examples.

Start with the Student

If a child in your class is really struggling with reading, writing, organization, time management, social skills or all of the above, the first step is to find out as much as you can about her educational history and anything else. This includes learning about her interests, cultural background, learning style, and something about her home life (The youngest? Foster care? Single parent home?)

The fact is we are mainstreaming a larger number of our students to general education classes, who, 15 years ago, may have instead been assigned to a special education class. That's good news in so many ways but makes a teacher's job more challenging. This is also one of the reasons why differentiated instruction has become such a hot topic.

Several years ago, in one of the general education language arts class I was teaching, 8 of the 34 students enrolled had an Individualized Education Program (IEP). When a child has an IEP, it is required that all teachers provide accommodations and modifications to assignments and instruction for that student. Speaking of overwhelmed. I definitely was, to say the least.

So, I learned. I spent many of my conference periods combing through student files. It's amazing what you can discover about a child from doing this. For instance, I had a student with perplexing behaviors then I learned he suffered from schizophrenia. How did I find out? Looking at his file. I was a much better teacher for him after gaining this information. Of course, he had an IEP, and someone should have told me in the beginning of the year, but we all know how things -- and children -- fall through the cracks of large public schools in enormous school districts.

A Classroom Example

Making an assignment, task, or objective different for one student than the rest of the class is meeting that child where they are in their learning journey. It's okay, you don't have to feel bad or feel as if you are being unfair, or lowering the bar. You are the child's teacher and you spend enough time with her to understand what she needs. And remember, equality is about meeting the needs of the individual.

Here's an example from my teaching:

It's a high school language arts class, and students are reading a novel. The daily objective is practicing inference and application of this skill. They are writing a brief essay predicting what the character Crooks from Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men might do next. They must pull textual evidence from the book to support their predictions and claims.

But Diana is seated over there, frustrated. She is struggling with the concept of inference, partly because she is reading below her grade level. Knowing this about her reading abilities, and other challenges indicated on her IEP, do I expect her to stay the course, or do I admit that success for her with this assignment as it stands is not likely? I decide to give Diana the task of listing five adjectives to describe the character Crooks. She has to find one quote from the character in the book to prove one or more of the words she has chosen. There are similarities to these two assignments, but different enough to ensure a higher probability of success -- and learning -- for her.

A Matter of Fairness

Differentiated instruction for Diana, and for other struggling students, may mean providing a handout with sentence starters or a graphic organizer to help them with constructing meaning. It may mean providing extra time to complete an assignment, giving directions again, reducing the length of an assignment, or offering alternate assignments or projects altogether. You can also provide struggling students with leveled text -- less difficult reading that contains the same content.

(For more differentiated instruction ideas and examples from the classroom, check out this Edutopia group discussion on the topic.)

Do I pre-plan variations of an assignment? Not always, but when I know my struggling students and their challenges well enough to predict road bumps ahead for them, I'm ready.

One way to be ready? Create file folders filled with various graphic organizers, visual aides, and sentence starters for different types of thinking (cause and effect, chronological, compare and contrast, to name a few). You can quickly pull out one of these in a pinch. If a student finishes a differentiated assignment with time left, then assess if it was too easy, and add a step. If a differentiated assignment is too difficult, break down the directions even more, give them one-on-one time with you, or remove a step.

I've heard teachers suggest that making an assignment less difficult for one student is not fair to the others. But I ask: Is it a matter of what is fair, or what is right?

What are ways you differentiate instruction for the grade level and content you teach? We look forward to hearing from you!

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Comments (88)

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Marketing, graphic design, & e-communications specialist in education

Question... would all of you

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Question... would all of you consider this 'customized' instruction?

Transformational Leadership Coach from Oakland, California

Resources

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My latest favorite resource on this topic is Rick Wormeli's Fair Isn't Always Equal: Assessing and Grading in the Differentiated Classroom. Carol Ann Tomlinson's work is also very useful, but I find Wormeli's suggestions very practical and immediately applicable.

When I was in the classroom

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When I was in the classroom teaching students with autism, we had to individualize everything. It took some time at first, but then it became second nature. For example, I young kids so they had snack time. Some could talk, some could not. Depending on each of their skills, one child may have to ask verbally for the snack, one may have had to give a card with a picture of the food item he wanted, and yet another may have had to give a car with a written word (he could read, but could not talk). This idea of differentiated instruction carried over to our group lessons where I may be teaching a lesson on the topic of "spring flowers", but each student would need to respond in their own way and be presented a work sample that was tailored to them about the same topic of "spring flowers." I have tried to pass this idea on to the classroom teachers I now provide training for.

Why 'instruction' vs.

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Why 'instruction' vs. 'teaching'? I believe honestly because 'instruction' sounds more sophisticated. Their meanings are equivalent. Schools of Education suffer at times from an inferiority complex, so they make things sound as technical and educated as possible. "You say 'tomaeto,' I say 'tomahto,' let's call the whole thing off and say what feels comfortable!

Why differentiated INSTRUCTION and not differentiated TEACHING?

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Any paticular reason? Many of us are taking distance from the term INSTRUCTION and what it conveys.

Why differentiated INSTRUCTION and not differentiated TEACHING?

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Good. Useful.
One question: Why differentiaded INSTRUCTION and not differentiated TEACHING? Any particular reason? Many of us are taking distance from the term INSTRUCTION and what it conveys.

This is where our

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This is where our AYP/API(California)/NCLB accountability pressure hinders learning vs. helping it. When we differentiate instruction those students for whom we differentiate may not acquire the standards at the same time/level as other students. For them that's ok, yet for schools it's not because these students could 'pull down test scores,' which brings a hornet's nest of adverse consequences. Removing the accountability pressure would free teachers to assess students more individually, thus more accurately.

Differentiated Instruction in Science

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We're considering doing away with our Pre-AP IB instruction as it is and switching to all students being together and offering extra science courses for those who want Pre-AP/IB credit...
does anyone have favorite websites for differentiated instruction in Science?

Thanks-
Angie

Edutopia Consulting Online Editor

Wow!

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Deborah, thank you so much for sharing this example. Truly inspiring stuff!

Edutopia Consulting Online Editor

IEP Accommodations and Modications

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Quote:

"Less difficult for some students" does not take into consideration students' readiness levels. Our task is to moderately challenge all students to achieve. The level of sophistication of a given assignment(not more work)should be differentiated, with all students focused on the same key outcomes (standards) in ways that are most meaning and engaging to them. Providing options that address not only readiness but interests and learning profiles whenever feasible invites students to more deeply explore the content to acquire knowledge as well as global understandings that are transformational. Using the Understanding by Design framework helps educators maintain focus on outcomes for all students while providing supports for learner differences.

I wholeheartedly agree that Wiggins' and McTighe's Understanding by Design framework is valuable, and know it can transform a teacher's practice -- and student learning outcomes -- overnight. Any type of backward planning creates laser focus on the overall goal (learning objective) and final project (summative assessment) that applies to all students -- gifted, general education, English language learners and special needs.

In my post, however, I focus on differentiating instruction for students with IEPs, with the statement being "...less difficult for one student...". Individual Education Programs are just that: about the individual. A child’s IEP contains explicit accommodations and modifications that a teacher must legally provide for the student. This very often means such things as shortening the length of an assignment or providing additional time to complete an assignment. The student will still be challenged by the task, with academic growth and success more likely.

It'd be interesting to hear from folks out there: How does backward planning (such as the Understanding by Design framework) support differentiated instruction in your classroom? Examples would be great!

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