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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation
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Design Thinking: Lessons for the Classroom

Betty Ray

Director of Programming and Innovation @Edutopia

The Design Thinking Process

While design thinking has its roots in the innovation/design sector, the process itself can be used anywhere. Indeed, it is a great tool for teaching 21st century skills, as participants must solve problems by finding and sorting through information, collaborating with others, and iterating their solutions based on real world, authentic experience and feedback. (It is also a great tool to develop and run a school, but that's a different post for a different day.)

I had the good fortune to participate in a collaborative workshop at the Big Ideas Fest, where we practiced design thinking with about 12 other educators over a three-day period. The idea was to give us a first-hand experience with design thinking, and to demonstrate how the model could work within the classroom.

Practitioners of design thinking have different steps depending on their needs. At BIF2011, we used these steps:

1) Identify Opportunity
2) Design
3) Prototype
4) Get Feedback
5) Scale and Spread
6) Present

In design thinking, you work through the steps together in small groups (or "Collabs" as they were called at BIF2011). Our task was to explore the question: How might we create ways to assess learning geared to making tangible progress toward meaningful goals?

With driving question in hand, each Collab is led by a trained facilitator. There are basic ground rules for working together (like saying "yes, and" rather than "yes, but" when disagreeing with someone), and using elements from improv comedy to help maintain a culture of positivity, risk-taking, support and flexibility.

This is important, as the goal is to break through the negative thinking that plagues the big, thorny issues, and to come up with one prototype idea for solving one aspect of the problem.

This right here is another novel idea! We're not tasked with fixing the whole system. This is an approach positing that small changes in the right places can have big impacts on outcome.

Six Design Thinking Steps

To solve these problems, we follow this six-step format from design thinking:

Step 1: Identify Opportunity

To deepen our understanding of the issues surrounding inadequate assessment of 21st century skills, our cohort split into two groups, each of which interviewed two educators: a public school teacher who wanted to assess soft skills in addition to state standards; and an independent school teacher who wanted a means of assessing kids that didn't interrupt their learning.

These interviews gave our group a specific goal: What system or product could we come up with to meet the needs of these two educators in assessing 21st century skills?

Step 1 in the classroom: Identify a big issue that is plaguing your school or community. Is there a fundraising challenge? A school resource issue? A civic concern or an environmental problem? You can also do a quick community needs assessment, but don't get too bogged down in this. The idea is to pick a need and move through the process. You can always iterate later.

Once you've identified your issue, invite two to three parents or other community members who are personally affected by this issue to share their perspective with your students. You can have them there in person or via Skype. Let students ask lots of questions. These are the people for whom the students will be designing solutions.

Step 2: Design Process

Here, we reviewed the stories in Step 1 and brainstormed solutions. We needed to come up with an assessment idea that was accurate and authentic, and it had to provide meaningful data to real world public school educators. With a "no idea is too stupid" mantra, we wrote brainstorms on sticky notes and posted them on a whiteboard. By the end of this process, we began to see themes emerge: it should give students feedback about where they are lacking and where they need to go; it should also be student-centered, longitudinal, with real time feedback. We organized the sticky notes into these bigger themes to prep for tomorrow.

Step 2 in the classroom: Once students have heard the issues facing their community via Step 1, give them sticky notes and pens and let them brainstorm solutions. Invite them to be inspired by each other and build off each others' ideas. Remember, no idea is too stupid! Once they've finished brainstorming, identify the main themes that have emerged, and break students into small groups to research their initial ideas. Here is where the "guide on the side" can really make a difference. The students may have some wonderfully creative but entirely impossible ideas! At this point, the teacher should guide them with real world experience to help ensure that they have a good start.

Step 3: Prototype Phase

Next, we review the themes and select one to prototype. This prototype need not solve all of the problems, just one aspect of the problem voiced by one of the speakers in Step 1. (Note the incredible discipline intrinsic in this process. At this point, we are focusing on one solution to one aspect of one problem.)

Our idea is an assessment "dashboard" called iGPS. This device would assess student progress much the same way a GPS in the car works; it pinpoints a student's current skill level, identifying target skill level along with specific waypoints to keep the student on the path to achieving the stated goal/skill level.

We used paper, markers, pipe cleaners and glue to make a prototype of our idea, which looked like a Googlemap from "where I am" to "where I need to be" plotted along a route that intersects specific skills. It was rough, but it communicated the concept.

Step 3 in the classroom: Get a bunch of creative materials together and let the groups flesh out their ideas into physical prototypes. As teams are creating, help them think through their prototypes: How will each feature help the people we interviewed in Step 1? Does this mesh with the research they did? How will the prototype work? Which materials are the best for the job?

Once they're done, tell students they're going be pitching their ideas to experts. Give them a chance to practice and refine their presentations so they're comfortable and confident!

Step 4: Feedback

Over lunch, all groups shared their prototypes to a panel of experts for feedback. All groups got to see everyone's presentations. Most prototypes were digital software tools, though not all.

Two experts from two different stakeholder groups offered their feedback: A) An educator who was looking for ways to make the idea more useful for a real-world classroom setting, and B) a social investor, who was looking to see if there was a viable market, and if the product would make a viable business.

Step 4 in the classroom: Invite people who are experts and/or stakeholders in the field to come to your school and have students present their prototypes to them. Ask each expert to review each pitch and prototype, and give students explicit feedback: what works with this idea, and what can be improved?

Step 5: Scale and Spread

Taking the feedback we received, we hone in even further on our prototype. To do this, our team breaks into four subgroups to address the questions raised. How can this assess both individual and group work? How does a student earn points (their quantifiable score)? What does the product itself look like? And finally, assuming our product is successful as an assessment tool for 21st century skills, what's the best way to market it to district administrators who will make the choice to adopt it? We answer these questions and quickly re-prototype to include these points.

Step 5 in the classroom: This step is yet another excellent opportunity to practice "guide on the side" facilitation. Help each group of students understand the feedback they got, and work with them to understand the best way to implement solutions. If there are multiple feedback points to be addressed, the groups can break into subgroups to address each point for efficiency. You might have students pick a project manager, and have all the subgroups report back to that person.

Step 6: Present

Most of the time, we go to these conferences and get fired up about all the great ideas there, and then we leave and nothing changes. The Big Ideas Fest culminated with a surprise. Three out of nine projects were selected to participate in the Big Ideas Fest in Beta, a new program which offers support to bringing these ideas to fruition. And furthermore, ISKME, the sponsor of the event, received a $50,000 matching grant from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to support three groups with additional design workshops, access to ISKME's networks, services and other resources to help incubate their ideas.

So, after a grand total of six hours' total collaboration time, each of the nine groups had come up with some great prototypes, and three were going to get some support to build their prototypes into working products.

Step 6 in the classroom: Barring a visit from the Billionaire Fairy, you may have to get more creative for this final step. You might invite the community members you engaged in Step 1 of this process, as well as others in your school or community to hear the presentations and brainstorm actionable ways to bring the ideas to fruition in an authentic setting. You could present both in-person and online, or set up Skype calls with local businesses.

Are you using aspects of design thinking now? Or do you feel that design thinking might have a use in your classroom or school? How might it work?




Comments (38)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Doris Wells-Papanek, MEd's picture
Doris Wells-Papanek, MEd
Director at the Design Learning Network

John, I couldn't agree more, similar is true of project-based learning. Each instructional approach can be designed/implemented well, students learn, resulting effective performance... or simply a waste of time. As you so correctly point out, without the capacity to identify, develop, and implement effective objectives - there is no learning, more just going through the process sans deep cognitive engagement, resulting in ineffective outcomes.

Doris Wells-Papanek, MEd's picture
Doris Wells-Papanek, MEd
Director at the Design Learning Network

Ewan, I'm excited to hear about your book! When will it be published? I'll also checkout your TEDxLondon talk.

You're comments on teacher-centered instruction rather than student-centered is spot on. I've recently discovered a very simple, but powerful chart in a 2011 ASCD publication: "Where Great Teaching Begins: Planning for Student Thinking and Learning" by Anne R. Reeves. http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Books/111023-overview.aspx

Check out Figure 1.1. Contrasting Views of Instructional Design in this link: http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111023/chapters/Instructional-Design@-Who-and-What-Is-It-ForC/.aspx

Joe Schwartz's picture

Hi, Ewan!

Loved the TEDx talk. Your approach to the problem of integrating more design thinking into K-12 schools is intriguing. I'm very interested to hear how it plays out for you here in the USA. The non-profit I co-founded, The Design-Ed Coalition, is going to have the challenge of taking the multitude of theories in K-12 Design Education and coalescing them into workable solutions - not an easy thing to do without a national education plan, as America lacks. Where we hope our strength as a group will be is to take ALL of the methods of using design as a teaching tool and presenting them to educators, who can then pick what works best for them, their school district and their students. I'd love to hear more from you!

Cory Wright's picture
Cory Wright
Educator / Chief Catalyst: ZiDEAS Innovation Group

Found your post very insightful. Thanks. Do you where I sign up for the virtual design thinking camp pd? See below...

This week we're giving away five Design Thinking book bundles to gear up for our upcoming virtual free professional development camp: Design Thinking for Educators, offered in collaboration with IDEO and Riverdale Country School in New York. The bundle includes Change By Design, The Art of Innovation, and The Ten Faces of Innovation -- three books from IDEO authors to help you learn more about design thinking, problem solving, and innovation.

Olani Lilly's picture

Will you be having another one? Or is there a way to see a webnar. I am so disappointed I missed this opportunity.

Ewan McIntosh's picture
Ewan McIntosh
CEO of NoTosh learning | technology | design thinking

We've been updating the resources we have in the NoTosh Lab, to help teachers plan for design thinking projects, particularly in the immersion phase. The resources are creative commons non-commercial, designed to be used and then shared back to the community as ideas others can build upon. Resources and guidance here: http://www.notosh.com/lab

Kevin Hewitson's picture
Kevin Hewitson
Teacher for 32 years now developing a company advocating creative education

As a design teacher I did not differentiate the approach to problem solving as anything special, it is a way of life, a way of learning. If we take learning as a problem to solve, a personal problem then we will begin to take ownership of the ability to learn and not just rely on teaching. So you see the design approach is more than just real world examples brought into schools - it is a way of taking control of learning. Being able to manage your learning environment to meet your learning needs is just another problem for the learner to solve. Have a look at this article, I hope it gets you interested in what I call "LQ" or "Learning Intelligence". http://wp.me/p2LphS-4h

Rafael Angel's picture
Rafael Angel
IB PYP MYP DP Spanish B and French B

Designers have always been architects of ideas and universes.
I love to refer to Hocketts' language features when I encourage my students to use langauge purposefully, to construct ideas that no one might have thought about -at leat in the classroom-, and to use their language creatively in order for them to have an impact on the way new understandings are constructed in the classroom.
Design thinking can play a very meaningful role in the approaches to teaching we decide to implement in the foreign language classroom, for learning a language is not simply acquiring a set of vocabulary items, but also a different set of values and degrees of truth, which means our way to conceive will be redefined/redesigned with every new learning we embrace.
Thus, if we create the promote the use of language as an element that triggers change and innovation; that invites everyone to co-construct new learning experiences; and as a tool that can help us 'see' (the Avatar 'see') differently, we will have a big opportunity to ideate, iterate and positively influence others through constructive opinions.
I have been a big fan of design thinking in the Foreign Language Classroom; I wrote this reflection, which also includes some of the outcomes my students have produced in class. I would love to read your feedback on them:
http://rafangel.wordpress.com/pensamiento-de-diseno/

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