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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

"Q & A teaching" is a practice that I was sometimes guilty of, and one that I've frequently seen throw off a lesson in many other teachers' classrooms. This occurs during the direct instruction portion of the lesson -- the instruction turns into a Q & A session instead of the teacher giving a clear model or explanation.

Teacher: I'm now going to model how to solve this type of problem. First I set up my equation. Now, who thinks they have an idea of what I should do next?

(30 seconds waiting for hands)

Student 1: Solve for x?

Teacher: Well, before that. You're on the right track, but what would I do first?

Student 2: Get the x by itself?

Teacher: No, not quite. What I'm going to do first is . . .

And then the lesson goes on in that confusing, start-stop fashion.

It's easy to understand why we do this -- we want students to be involved and stay engaged in the lesson. The problem for a lesson covering a new skill, though, is that the end result is disjointed instruction possibly including wrong information, since students were asked to contribute aloud before they were ready. This can lead to confusion for students, since the lesson wasn’t presented clearly and succinctly. Another possible risk is that it can throw off the pacing of the lesson, since this Q & A is usually impromptu and not accounted for in the timing of the lesson. Q&A teaching is often the culprit when you realize that your direct instruction took 30 minutes and you'd only planned for it to take ten.

Here are some ideas for how to avoid it.

1. Announce Your Intention

Openly tell the students that you're doing a model and that you'll check for their understanding at the end. Announcing that can often be enough of a reminder to yourself not to make it conversation. If you're comfortable, you could assign a student to make sure you don't interrupt your model by asking them questions. My students loved it when they got to be in charge of me for something.

2. Raise the Stakes

Prior to your direct instruction, give the students a little time to try figuring it out by themselves. This can be particularly effective in a math class or another problem-solving situation for which they have already learned some of the concepts or skills. In this scenario, the kids are engaged in trying to problem solve on their own, and then when you're modeling, they're anxious to see whether they got it right or what your solution is, and so are likely to stay engaged as they follow along.

3. Rehearse the Lesson

Script out and practice your direct instruction ahead of time. This can be time consuming, but it can really pay off for crucial concepts. When you script and practice what you're going to say, you give yourself the opportunity to really make sure that you’re putting that concept or skill into words -- and doing it succinctly.

4. Watch the Clock

Use a timer for direct instruction. If you've been talking for 15 minutes and you're still not done, 90 percent of the time you probably won't make things any clearer by talking for even longer. So just stop and let your students try the task with their groups or partners.

5. Watch Yourself Teach

Video your direct instruction and then watch it. This can be terrifying for some, but it's incredibly helpful. We often make assumptions about our teaching and only realize some of our tendencies when we actually see ourselves doing them. When you watch that video, you can identify whether Q & A teaching is a problem for you and what kinds of distracting questions you're asking kids. Once you know that, you can plan for how to avoid it.

Keeping your direct instruction clear, succinct and as short as possible is essential for ensuring that students are spending as much time as possible grappling with the concept and practicing new skills. What other strategies do you use to keep your instruction succinct and avoid Q & A teaching?

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Peter's picture

The fifteen minute rule is not a bad guide, though you may want to consider how engaged the students are.

Scripting? If you have to script, perhaps you should find another line of work.

Patrick's picture

Peter, scripting is only more in depth planning. Are you against detailed planning? I sugggest scripting with my new teachers all the time.

HouseOfStudy's picture
HouseOfStudy
President of The House of Study, an Education Think Tank

Simple rule: when modeling, never ask a question unless you yourself do not know the answer.

Thus, "What should I do next?" is a no. On the other hand, "Does that make sense to everyone?" is fine.

Peter's picture

Depends what kind of details. If you have a detailed linear plan with just one path forward then it is not very useful and can in fact become destructive when one starts trying to get students to shape their behavior to fit your plan.

There are limits, certainly. If I'm asking students to find dependent clauses in sentences, there's a pretty limited number of responses that I want to get.

But scripting? No, I stand by my original statement. If you need a script to get up in front of a class, you need to get into another field. Students are not supporting cast in a play you're putting on, and you had better know what you're doing well enough that you don't need to read your part line by line.

Mary Ann Stoll's picture
Mary Ann Stoll
Curriculum developer for K-12

Wow. This is thought-provoking because it implies that direct instruction means minimal interaction (not minimal engagement nor minimal awareness of your students of course). So when is direction instruction the right strategy to use? And, when it is, remember to keep it really short!

Sea_trail's picture

I've always called this platform teaching because I'm building a platform for the new skill or concept for which the students will individually build upon. To eliminate the confusion, I tell the students I'm introducing a new skill/topic and I'm going to demonstrate it for them. I then go into my dramatized "teacher voice" to give directions as I model and dramatized "student voice" to ask questions to which I reply in my "dramatized teacher voice." This dramatization holds students' attention (they love it!), allows me to complete the introduction and build a platform, and to model the nature of questions they should ask.. (Yes, many students haven't fully developed the skill to ask a relevant question because they've been mislead to believe "there is no such thing as a dumb question." ) I've actually had an administrator observe me and complain about the admin's perception of lack of student input in the 10 minute introduction! Admins continue to surprise me with their lack of understanding how sometimes the students just need to actively listen..

Syrita Jackson's picture
Syrita Jackson
5th grade Social Studies & Language Arts, Atlanta, Ga

I think that the people who are so anti- "Scripting" are thinking that the teacher will then READ the script to the kids...uh, that's a NO! The point of the script is that it requires that teacher carefully think through EXACTLY what he or she plans to say and ask. I too recommend scripting with student teachers especially for critical introductory lessons. Not so that they can then read to students but just to help clarify and simplify the ideas in their own heads.

Ms.Garcia's picture
Ms.Garcia
High School English Teacher from Navajo Nation

Not a new teacher, but this is a good reminder on tightening up direct instruction. Very helpful article- thank you!

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