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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation
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Addiction vs. Reflection: Unlocking the Potential of Games

Adam Timothy

Chief Explorer at the Lost in Learning Project - parent of 3, Boston, MA

I was just ten years old when the circumstances of life led me to lock-picking for the first time.

No, I wasn’t starving, nor had I been abducted by a band of thieves. I was driven by something which, at the time, seemed much more urgent.

You see, my mother had lost her patience in trying to compete for our attention with the Nintendo. So, having determined that self-regulation with these newfangled computer games was impossible, she resorted to placing a lock on the power cable to prevent unauthorized access.

We were devastated.

Didn't she understand that the fate of an entire fantasy world was at stake and that her kids alone had been called upon to save it? Could she not fathom the wrenching heartache that ensued when we were prevented from fulfilling our virtual calling in life for hours at a time?

But, when our outrage fell on deaf ears, we returned to what games had already taught us about solving problems. We searched high and low for the key, but to no avail. We tried a clothespin, no luck there either. Finally, we fell back on brute force and, with the help of a screwdriver, we managed to wrench the lock open and, unbeknownst to our mother, return to blissfully saving the world.

The Magic of Narrative and Imagination

Two decades have gone by and I now find myself a parent (a.k.a. reformed gamer) looking at the same picture, but through the opposite side of the telescope.

I watch as my own boys lose themselves in fantasy adventures, digital puzzles and immersive simulations, and it is now me who loses my patience when competing with the screen for attention or trying to promote some non-digital activity, only to be told that everything else in life seems boring by comparison.

Yet the empathetic part of me can't grow too frustrated at them, knowing all too well what it is to be held in thrall to the siren calls of the Gameworld.

I remember as well that I often felt as though I was learning something while playing, or at least my mind was doing a lot of work. So I've withheld judgment for the time being to see whether there might in fact be something educationally redeeming about games for this generation.

Looking at them through a more critical eye, the first thing I've found is that games turn many older notions of education on their collective head.

After all, where education has, in times past, been characterized as a deliberate confrontation with boredom, games manage to tap into the most primal cues of narrative and the imagination. This enables them to take otherwise dry and abstract information and rearrange it into compelling and memorable systems that leave learners wanting more.

For instance when I studied cell biology in the 12th grade with terms like DNA, rNa, ribosomes, lysosomes, membranes, mitochondria, ATP and glucose, I read a textbook with definitions lined up one after another in academic speak and the occasional picture to accompany the text. The only context at the time was that it was Chapter 11 stuck between Chapters 10 and 12, all of which were filled with a bunch of information I would need to digest in order to pass the big exam.

When my kids learned cell biology (they were six and eight at the time), they simply played the game Cellcraft for a few weeks. In the game, they took control of a single-celled organism, planted in space as the only hope for continuing a race of Platypuses whose planet was destroyed. They had to hunt down glucose to survive; they watched the mitochondria in action turning fuel into energy; and they quickly learned the names and purposes of every biological defense mechanism at their disposal as they fended off waves of attacking viruses seeking to compromise the host cell. This was serious stuff, dripping with context, and within a comparatively short time these boys knew their way around a cell better than I ever had.

The secret wasn’t just graphics or moving pictures. The secret was that they cared.

Taking an Active Role

Games find ways to make us care . . . a lot.

I found the same thing when I spent a summer as an intern on the Making History project at Muzzy Lane.

I had never developed a taste for history in school, as it seemed frozen and irrelevant. Yet here I was working on a WWII history simulation that made Axis and Allies look like child's play. Every aspect of government, diplomacy, the economy, policy-making, military strategy and history itself was at your fingertips. You could follow history, try to change it, figure out why things had happened and what might have been done differently if different choices had been made. This wasn't dust-covered history; it was living, engaging stuff.

Simulations and games allow us to flip the switches, call the shots and live through the consequences of our decisions for good and bad. We experience the elation of success and the agony of defeat as we experiment and learn with dogged tenacity until we overcome the challenge at hand.

Outside the world of simulations, I've found games to be adept at the principle of compete and repeat.

My seven-year-old, who hadn't shown a lot of interest in traditionally taught writing or math, got onto a skill-building site a few months ago. As soon as it was clear to him that he was in competition with kids from around the globe, many of them twice his age, he couldn't be kept from drilling the same exercises over and over and over again until he could win the races. Within a few weeks, he had his arithmetic facts down pat: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. He could type a list of spelling words just as quickly as his parents, and on most of the games he could beat us hands down. The same thing happened with geography when our kids discovered Stack the Countries on the iPod, and within a couple of weeks could pretty much pinpoint any country in the world on a map.

Primal Triggers vs. Reflection

Our brains are wired for stories and games. The thrill of the hunt, the anticipation of uncovering the treasure, the challenge of competition or making it past the next stage -- all of these desires drive the motivational synapses that make learning happen at a rate far surpassing the traditional, unmotivated, context-less content that so many students and working adults face daily.

This begs the question: if games can teach us more quickly and more deeply, why don't we just dedicate a majority of our educational resources to the development of quality games?

Of course, before we jump into this too far, we might want to look for some proof that those kids who spend hours every day in the gamers' trance are actually getting smarter and will turn out to be innovative world-changers.

Problem is . . . most of them aren't.

The reality is that, while the brain may be firing on all cylinders as part of playing a game, learning which can be used in life requires a higher process still. It requires reflection.

And herein lies the rub which prevents many video games from becoming true teaching tools. The very thing that makes them so compelling is also their Achilles heel.

Games don't just capture our imaginations; they tend to hijack them. Game worlds and stories are so immersive, so compelling that their passengers lose the desire to get off the ride. It's the same tool that authors use at the end of their chapters to leave a whole class of sixth-graders groaning and wanting to know what comes next. Except in the game world, it's amplified umpteen times.

The problem is, there is no exit ramp, no good launch point for saying, "Now that you've learned this, go apply it in a different context, go create something, go explore, go teach, go dream." So the brain just keeps cycling over the same story and over the same problems, unable to release them productively.

Like a rocket held in orbit by the planet's gravitational pull, it takes a tremendous amount of force and effort to reach escape velocity. And for the most part, gamers don't escape the pull.

Level Up

The truth is, though, it is possible to build escape routes into game mechanics. It's possible to establish breakpoints that don't just recognize achievement but propel users to outside thinking and activity.

It’s possible that the incredible potential force built up by games could be unleashed to actually make a difference in the real world, but it would require designers adopting a different model which doesn't equate design success with addictiveness. With any luck though, the coming years will see a plethora of new ideas, platforms and games which are more narrative, thoughtful and encouraging of reflection than those whose primary goal is mass captivation without a break. It may be then that we finally enter the realm of the game not only as a learning tool, but as an art form.

Then perhaps there will be less of parents playing this generational tug-of-war, and kids will have something to be engaged in besides picking locks.

Adam Timothy

Chief Explorer at the Lost in Learning Project - parent of 3, Boston, MA
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Comments (5)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Oliver Rose's picture

Interesting stuff - as you've noted, there are a variety of types of games for learning, not all simulations. For many foundational kinds of learning, the 'compete and repeat' kind of casual game can be an excellent way to get students to be engaged enough to bother reviewing and memorizing some key words and concepts (e.g. times tables/vocabulary/periodic table etc) needed before higher-level thinking is possible. I've been working on games to use with flashcard data to make this kind of review a more enjoyable experience. I am a university EFL teacher in Japan, so my primary learning goals were language related e.g. English vocabulary for my students, and Japanese kanji for myself. One game I've .made is online at www.lexwordgameapp.com
It can use any text-based flashcard lists imported from Quizlet. Try it out, I'd love some feedback.
Best,
Oliver

Susan Briere's picture

Fortunately, there are new ideas and platforms rolling out in the world of game design. Jane McGonigal's' work with alternate reality games, ARGs, reflects a more holistic approach to gaming. Jane uses games to engage large numbers of players to accept quests that address real world challenges. The game Evoke - A Crash Course in Changing the World, http://blog.urgentevoke.net, was developed by the World Bank Institute and directed by Jane McGonigal. In 2010, Evoke won the award for Social Game of the Year from Games for Change, the leading global organization for games designed to have a positive real world impact.

There is a definite trend in game design to focus mass participation in games that overcome real learning challenges, real social issues, and real world environmental threats by overlaying the successful elements of gaming; optimism, enthusiasm, engagement, collaboration and persistent effort to create real solutions.

I recommend watching Jane's TED talks and reading her book, Reality is Broken - Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change The World. Good game design does provide opportunities for not only individual reflection, it provides for the type of collaborative reflection that ensures all players level up.

Erin's picture

I think the idea of an art form coming from a video game is a very interesting concept. I've heard people accomplishing a task in their lives and then stating "I learned that from something I did in a video game". I'm curious what implementing ideas such as these into a classroom would result with, or in the future as new variety of games are being created what classrooms will end up looking like.

Cathryn Hudson's picture
Cathryn Hudson
Project manager, Conscious Dimensions LLC.

Our group is struggling a bit with financing and getting up and going. Seems investors think gaming is a risky investment, but as I read (your article and ESA and what we put in our business plan), the current industry of parents and children, are very supportive and parents are more involved than ever. And ours/ the game is based on learning self awareness. We found that many adults do this after they have been through college and even their 1st job, but nothing happens in the early years to develop self awareness.
As our CEO and founder Dr. Ooten states "When people understand both their own gifts and challenges, and those of their co-workers, school mates, friends and family, the result is a high performing and happy member of society".
So much more to say, love this article, hitting home!

Andy XU RUNYUN's picture
Andy XU RUNYUN
From Shanghai, China. A volunteer in Walnut Valley Unified School District.

As the only child brought up by my parents in China, I experienced almost everything that you, as well as your children have been experienced. I remember that when I was a 4th grade elementary school pupil in 1998, my father was playing Need For Speed: Hot Pursuit through CD ROM. I was so curious and even wanted to have a try, since there were so many sports cars which we have been dreamed of purchasing. However, he didn't let me and said this game would teach me something bad. So I have to switch on the computer and played NFS3 when both of my parents were not at home. Finally, I somehow mastered the time period they arrived home, and would turn on the electric fan for cooling the monitor down one hour before they arrive back home. :-)

Now that I am 25 years old already, I have to admit that students learn by playing computer games. But a selection of computer games is rather important. Usually, computer games which teach them how to solve problems will help them grow in an effective way! :-)

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