George Lucas Educational Foundation
Critical Thinking

Overcoming Obstacles to Critical Thinking

The ability to think critically will benefit students throughout their lives. Here are a few tips on how to get started teaching it.
A young boy stands thinking in front of a blackboard covered with question marks.
A young boy stands thinking in front of a blackboard covered with question marks.
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The ability to think critically is one skill separating innovators from followers. It combats the power of advertisers, unmasks the unscrupulous and pretentious, and exposes unsupported arguments. Students enjoy learning the skill because they immediately see how it gives them more control. Yet critical thinking is simple: It is merely the ability to understand why things are they way they are and to understand the potential consequences of actions.  

Devastating Consequences, Tremendous Opportunities

Young people—without significant life experience and anxious to fit in—are especially vulnerable to surface appeal. Sometimes that appeal actively discourages analysis, as is the case with the targeted advertising that affects buying and eating habits. Students may choose friends for the wrong reasons, leading to heartache. Later on, decisions about joining the military or pursuing another career or about becoming a parent will have indelible effects on their lives.

Every educator is in a position to teach students how to gather information, evaluate it, screen out distractions, and think for themselves. Because critical thinking is so important, some believe that every educator has the obligation to incorporate the application of critical thinking into his or her subject area. This helps students evaluate prepackaged conclusions and clears a path for original thoughts. Practicing critical thinking in the classroom may mean discussing the quality of a textbook, considering whether traditional beliefs about a subject are accurate, or even discussing the teacher’s instructional style.

A World of Illusions

Seeing beyond superficial appearances is especially important today because we are surrounded by illusions, many of them deliberately created. The effects may be subtle yet profound. While we seek out and appreciate some illusions, such as films and novels, others can make us miserable or even kill us. We need to know if foods that taste perfectly fine can hurt us in the short term (as with Salmonella contamination) or in the long term (cholesterol). A virus might be so dangerous that we should avoid public places, and political candidates promising to clean up government can end up being more corrupt than their predecessors. We want to know if items we purchase are durable or junk, and whether people we’re attracted to are truly as considerate as they seem at first. Students are constantly being presented with information not only in the classroom, but also from their friends, parents, the internet, films, television, radio, newspapers, and magazines. They need tools to analyze all the input.

Making a Start in Teaching Critical Thinking

The first step in teaching critical thinking is to help students recognize how easily false ideas can creep into their belief systems. For example:

1) People believe stories because they are the ones available. Most people identify Thomas Edison as the inventor of the incandescent light bulb. Although Edison perfected a commercially successful design, he was preceded in the experimentation by British inventors Frederick de Moleyns and Joseph Swan, and by American J. W. Starr. Sometimes stories become accepted because they are simple, sensational, entertaining, or already popular. But just because a story is available doesn’t mean it’s accurate.

2) Beliefs may justify past actions. In July 2006, half the respondents to a Harris Poll said they believed that when the United States invaded Iraq in March 2003, that country possessed weapons of mass destruction. But back in 2004, the CIA had already concluded that Iraq possessed no stockpiles of illicit weapons. Even reliable, readily available facts had not superseded the mistaken impression that many still held.

3) People may not recognize the significance of their own perceptions. In November 2005, a suicide bomber struck the Radisson Hotel in Amman, Jordan. On the eighth floor, Ita Martin heard a loud noise. Yet it was not until she turned on CNN that she learned a bomb had gone off. “Oh, my God, I’m in that hotel!” she exclaimed. Had she trusted her own ears and eyes, she would have left the building much more quickly.

4) People may not want to question their beliefs. Students don’t need much convincing that two of the biggest enemies of the truth are people whose job it is to sell us incomplete versions of the available facts, and the simple absence of accurate information. They may need more convincing that a significant problem is their own desire to believe what feels comfortable.

Students can be reminded that companies advertising products take advantage of our desires; they don’t describe the benefits of their competitors’ products any more than a man asking a woman to marry him encourages her to date other men before deciding. It’s a social reality that people encourage one another to make important decisions with limited facts.

When students are shown how to gather information, question what appears obvious, and think through possible consequences, they’ll be able to make decisions based on facts, not myths or propaganda. Years later, students may forget some details of a subject, but they’ll never forget the teacher who taught them how to think more effectively.

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mike lieber's picture
mike lieber
Technology Education - New York

This article just scratches the surface. The UNIVERSAL SYSTEMS MODEL is the answer to the start of CT skills. Young students can grasp the understanding of the management of resources in any process and how that affects a system. Students can them begin to question why things are fom that point. The USM is an INVALUABLE tool, like the scientific method but used to critically study human made systems and the resources humans need, want and use to meet needs. I have been using this tool for 2 decades creating critical thinkers at a yoing age.

G. Randy Kasten's picture
G. Randy Kasten
Critical thinking specialist

Indeed, the ability not only to formulate ideas but to test them are both essential to accurate thinking. The principle is simply that our thinking becomes more accurate the more we test it against reality.

In basic terms the Universal Systems Model calls for action that is modified by feedback. It is similar to the classic model of a scientific experiment; rather than simply accepting a hypothesis as fact, a scientist tests the hypothesis, which may lead to confirmation of the theory, or to another hypothesis. Theories and expectations, in other words, often require constant adjustment.

As you know from painful experience, products are sometimes put on the market before they have undergone significant testing and feedback. Behind that scenario is someone who thought his or her idea was so great it didn't require much testing.

Several things get in the way of testing our beliefs. People tend to fall in love with their ideas and can feel personally denigrated when their ideas are challenged or disproven.

Carrying out experiments or even getting feedback on ideas can also take time and money, and may have adverse consequences. For example, experiments to find out what offends your friends may cost you friendships.

In science, there are ethical complications with many potential experiments. For example, we are told to wash a cut thoroughly as soon as possible. But incredibly, no one really knows what "as soon as possible" means because a controlled study would require an unethical experiment where people deliberately waited various lengths of time to cleanse identical wounds.

One practical exercise for students is to have them articulate a belief they hold and also a practical method(s) for getting more information about the accuracy of that belief. They can also be asked to come up with examples of beliefs they have where a test would be unethical or too dangerous to carry out.

Here are a couple of links to sites that explain the Universal Systems Model using visual aids:

https://www.quia.com/files/quia/users/james_ray/USM_Breakdown.pdf

http://www.wsfcs.k12.nc.us/cms/lib/NC01001395/Centricity/Domain/1555/3.0...

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