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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

Programming Is the New Literacy

Power will soon belong to those who can master a variety of expressive human-machine interactions.
By Marc Prensky
Credit: Laura Morris Designs

Already, various thinkers about the future have proposed a number of candidates for the designation "twenty-first-century literacy." That is, what are the key skills humans must possess in order to be considered literate? Some writers assume that the definition of literacy will continue to be what it always has been: "The ability to carefully read and write a contemporary spoken language." Others specify that the term will apply only to fluency in one or more of the languages spoken by the largest numbers of people, those certain to be important over the next nine decades of the century; candidates include Spanish, English, or Mandarin Chinese.

Still others expand the notion of twenty-first-century literacy beyond spoken and written language to include the panoply of skills often collected under the umbrella term multimedia (being able to both understand and create messages, communications, and works that include, or are constructed with, visual, aural, and haptic -- that is, physical -- elements as well as words). Some go on to find important emerging literacy in interactivity and games. And there are those who say it includes all of the above, and might include other factors as well.

I am one of these last, in that I believe fluency with multiple spoken languages will continue to be important, and that multimedia, interactivity, and other game-derived devices will be increasingly significant tools for communicating twenty-first-century thought. Nonetheless, I firmly believe that the true key literacy of the new century lies outside all these domains.

I believe the single skill that will, above all others, distinguish a literate person is programming literacy, the ability to make digital technology do whatever, within the possible one wants it to do -- to bend digital technology to one's needs, purposes, and will, just as in the present we bend words and images. Some call this skill human-machine interaction; some call it procedural literacy. Others just call it programming.

Seem strange? I'm sure it does. Today, people with highly developed skills in this area are seen as nerds. But consider that as machines become even more important components of our communication, our work, our education, our travel, our homes, and our leisure, the ability to make them do what we want will become increasingly valuable. Already, today, a former programmer in Seattle, one of these very nerds, is one of the richest people in the world.

So, in a sense, we are going to see as we progress through the twenty-first century a real revenge of the nerds, except that the new nerds will be our programmatically literate children. As programming becomes more important, it will leave the back room and become a key skill and attribute of our top intellectual and social classes, just as reading and writing did in the past. Remember, only a few centuries ago, reading and writing were confined to a small specialist class whose members we called scribes.

Do You HTML?

One might ask, "Will every educated person really have to program? Can't the people who need programming just buy it?" Possibly. Of course, with that model, we have in a sense returned to the Middle Ages or ancient Egypt, or even before. Then, if you needed to communicate your thoughts on paper, you couldn't do it yourself. You had to hire a better-educated person -- a scribe -- who knew the writing code. Then, at the other end, you needed someone to read or decode it -- unless, of course, you were "well educated," that is, you had been taught to read and write and thus had become literate.

Classified Ad:

Electronic Arts, the world’s biggest video game company, recently created this billboard advertisement written in a programming language. Can you read it? (It says, "Now Hiring.")

Credit: Marc Prensky

Here's a key question: Will the need for a separate scribe tribe of programmers continue through the twenty-first century, or will the skill set of an educated person soon include programming fluency? I think that as programming becomes increasingly easy (which it will) and as the need to show rather than explain becomes important (which it will) and as people working together want to combine the results of their efforts and ideas instantaneously (which they will), educated people will, out of necessity, become programmers. Think of it: Your phone and car already require programming skills; many houses and jobs do, too. Programming will soon be how we interact with all our objects, and I believe it will be an important component of how we interact with one another as well.

Of course, there are already Luddites who think a digital machine is most elegant if it has only one button (like the Roomba robot floor cleaner) and people who keep searching for a cell phone that only makes phone calls. (Good luck.) There is a hierarchy of levels of making machines do what you want (that is, programming them) that runs from manipulating a single on-off switch to managing menus, options, and customization to coding higher-level programming languages (Flash, HTML, scripting) and lower-level languages (C++, Java) to creating assembler or machine language.

Few people, however, remain satisfied for long with the first level -- as soon as we master that, most of us seek refinements and customization to our own needs and tastes. (The company that makes the Roomba offers a kit to turn its parts into whatever type of robot you want.)

Just about every young person programs (controls his or her own digital technology) to some extent. Many actions considered merely tasks -- setting up a universal television remote, downloading a ringtone, customizing your mobile phone or desktop -- are really programming. Doing a Web search is programming, as is using peer-to-peer or social-networking technologies, or eBay, or creating a document in Word, Excel, MySpace, or Facebook -- and toss in building your avatar in Second Life. Today's kids are such good programmers that parents who buy expensive high tech gadgets, such as camcorders or home theaters, often hand them to their children to set up (program) for them.

Today, most of this programming takes place in what I refer to as higher-level programming languages, consisting of menus and choices rather than the more flexible computer code. Of course, many people will be content with this level of programming (which still manages to baffle many "literate" adults).

But as today's kids grow up and become tomorrow's educated adults, most will go much further. At an early age, many young people learn the HTML language of Web pages and often branch out into its more powerful sister languages, such as XML and PHP. Other kids are learning programming languages like Game Maker, Flash, and Scratch, plus scripting language, graphics tools, and even C++, in order to build games. They learn them occasionally in school, but mostly on their own, after school, or in specialized summer camps. Why? First, because they realize it gives them the power to express themselves in the language of their own times, and second -- and perhaps even more importantly -- because they find it fun.

Want a Program? Hire a Kid

Suppose you have a need for a computer program. "Me?" you say. "Why would I have such a need?" But this possibility is not far-fetched at all. For instance, when Howard Dean ran for U.S. president a few years ago, he (or someone on his staff) had this idea: "What if we could collect contributions over the Internet?" Nobody had ever done this before, because the structure wasn't there -- the program had never been written. So he went out and found a young programmer -- an eighteen-year-old -- to write the necessary code, and within only a matter of weeks the contributions started pouring in.

Most of us have problems a computer or another digital machine could easily solve for us, if only we conceived them as programming problems: "What is my best commuting route under different weather or other conditions?" "What are my statistics in my sports (or hobbies or work), and how do they compare with those of others?" "What is the optimal configuration of my [you name it]?" "How close am I to retirement, and will I have enough money?"

We all have ideas and needs amenable to programming solutions. My guess is that the more educated and literate we are (in the tired twentieth-century sense), the more of these we have. Yet most of us "digital immigrants" -- those who came to computers and digital technology later in our lives -- never even know it. We never realize that our desire to contact certain groups of people at certain times, or to lighten the load of repetitive work (say, grading papers), or to solve certain types of puzzles (like Sudoku), are really programming problems, and quite solvable ones at that.

But some among us do realize this, and we hire young people -- often our kids, students, or employees but equally often consultants selling solutions -- to do the necessary programming for us. One result is that we nonprogrammers often get ripped off (charged a lot for something quite simple), say, by financial planners offering seemingly sophisticated tools that, were we the slightest bit "literate," we could not only write ourselves but also customize specifically to our needs.

That's not how it will be in the future. As we move further into the twenty-first century, well educated people who have needs and ideas addressable via programming will increasingly be able to recognize this fact and take matters into their own hands.

The Digital "Scribe Tribe"

Recently, programming languages "ordinary" people use have begun to emerge. Of these, one in particular -- Flash, from Adobe -- appears to be becoming a de facto standard. A great many kids in elementary school and the middle grades around the world are learning to program in Flash and are continually improving their skills as they advance through the grades. They use this tool and others like it (the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Scratch, for example) to communicate a wide range of information and emotion -- from stories to logic to games to ideas to persuasive arguments to works of art -- all through programming. And it seems to them not nerdy but, rather, sophisticated and advanced.

The young people who do this vary greatly, of course, in the sophistication of what they can do. But sophisticated programming is becoming easier by the day. More and more premade programming objects -- code written by others that can simply be plugged in to perform certain tasks -- are available on the Internet, and are mostly free.

These databases of premade parts greatly enhance students' abilities, extend their programming and problem-solving capabilities, and shorten the time to get things done. In a sense, these bits of code are like an alphabet of programming. Recently, a friend was asked to program a "Wheel of Fortune" in Flash. Rather than taking a week to program it from scratch, he did a Web search, found something like what he wanted available free, and finished the project in an hour.

With these increasingly available and findable pieces of code, the range of what one can do and communicate with programming can expand indefinitely. And though simpler programs such as Flash already allow a pretty good degree of sophistication, many young people, through game creation, Internet-tool creation, or other means, get into the more sophisticated programming languages of three-dimensional world building, scripting, and entirely abstract, logical programming languages such as Java and C++.

And so emerges the new scribe tribe of programmers, reaching into (and eventually becoming) the intellectual elite of the twenty-first century. Programming has already become a tool today's young people use to communicate with one another via such components as machinima (see the definition below), ringtones, emoticons, searches, photo manipulation, and games. Young people email or IM their creations to one another as we do our Word and Excel attachments, often posting them on the Internet for all to see. I bet few among us have not been the recent recipient of an emailed URL pointing us to an interesting program, a greeting card, a YouTube video, a machinima, or a game. (And, of course, Word and Excel are programming languages in themselves, with enormously sophisticated programming capabilities built in via macros and scripting.)

As the century goes on, those who don't program -- who can't bend their increasingly sophisticated computers, machines, cars, and homes to their wills and needs -- will, I predict, be increasingly left behind. Parents and teachers often disrespect today's young people for being less than literate in the old reading-and-writing sense. But in turn, these young citizens of the future have no respect for adults who can't program a DVD player, a mobile phone, a computer, or anything else. Today's kids already see their parents and teachers as the illiterate ones. No wonder some teachers are scared to bring new technologies into the classroom -- the kids just laugh at their illiteracy.

So, as the highly literate person of 2008 might start off the day reading the New York Times and firing off a cleverly worded letter to the editor in response to a column, the highly literate person of 2028 may start the day ingesting the news in multiple ways with various types of stories they have programmed to be delivered in a preferred order, each at a preferred speed. And if that person feels a need to express an opinion, a simple bit of programming will allow him or her to determine all the people in the world to whom a response should go, and have it customized for each of them. Or one might program and fire off a video, an animation, or a simulation.

As the highly literate adult of today might pen a witty birthday card note for a young niece or nephew, the highly literate adult of tomorrow might program the child a game. And though today's highly literate person may enjoy a sophisticated novel or nonfiction book on a plane or train ride, tomorrow's highly literate person may prefer to change, by programming, whatever story or other media he or she is interacting with to suit individual preferences, and might then, with a little more programming, distribute those changes to the world.

And, of course, all this extends into the physical world as well thorough robotics and machine programming.

Tool Time

Tools have always been important to humans; now, intellectual tools are becoming increasingly significant. Until recently, getting an education and becoming a literate person meant learning to use the set of tools considered essential for each field or discipline. The tools in any endeavor change and improve over time, but they generally do so quite slowly, and new tools are often invented not by ordinary people but by "geniuses." Getting an education in a field has long meant gaining mastery of its existing tools.

In this century, we will see, I think, something quite different. Using their ever more sophisticated programming skills, ordinary well-educated people will be constantly inventing new tools to solve whatever problems they have. In fact, this will be the expectation of what a literate person does. Already, in many circles (and not only scientific ones, although most are still rather geeky), one often hears someone say, "I wrote a little program to do that." And whether it's to find Manhattan addresses or to keep track of how many seconds remain until your next paycheck, a typical reaction is, "Can I get that?" to which the answer is as simple as a URL or a USB key.

It takes neither geeks nor armies of people to create useful tools via programming. A woman recently created an extremely useful program to compile and redeem her supermarket coupons. Google was created by two graduate students (Sergey Brin and Larry Page). Just one guy (Pierre Omidyar) developed the original program for eBay. Often, from these initial programming ideas come very big companies and profits. (Brin, Page, and Omidyar are all billionaires.)

But even if they don't yield huge profits, thousands -- and soon millions -- of people are beginning to create and share good programs we can all use free. Successful companies train new programmers, who then generate their own ideas and tools, in addition to the tools their companies build. Smart businesses are already searching for young people who can create these new tools -- employees who are twenty-first-century literate.

All of which brings us to an important question: If programming (the ability to control machines) is indeed the key literacy of this century, how do we, as educators, make our students literate? This problem is a particularly thorny one, because most teachers, even many of our best math and science instructors, do not possess the necessary skills, even rudimentary ones. Most of the tools (and even the concept of programming) were developed long after these teachers were born or schooled.

Can we do it by bringing working programmers into the schools? Not likely. Most of the good ones are busy programming and have no desire to teach.

The answer is not yet clear, but we can either come up with creative solutions to this real problem, or, in their absence, the kids will, as they are doing with so many things, figure out ways to teach themselves. Imagine: Literacy without (official) teachers.

Our machines are expected, thirty years from now, to be a billion times more powerful than they are today. Literacy will belong to those who can master not words, or even multimedia, but a variety of powerful, expressive human-machine interactions. If you are from the old school, you may not enjoy hearing this, but I doubt there is anything anyone can do to stop it.

Thirty years from now, will the United States be more competitive with a population that can read English at a tenth-grade level or with a population excellent at making the complex machines of that era do their bidding? The two options may be mutually exclusive, and the right choice may determine our children's place in the world's intellectual hierarchy.

Marc Prensky is the author of Digital Game-Based Learning and Don't Bother Me, Mom, I'm Learning. He is also founder and CEO of Games2train, a game-based learning company.

Comments (123)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

N Mercier's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

One of the fundamental truths of programing is contained in the acronym GIGO which stands for Garbage In, Garbage Out. This axiom is important to remember when talking about fluency in the 20th century. While I will agree the most skilled communicators will have skills that include a knowledge of Podcasting, Flash Animation, Website Design, PHP and MySQL integration, Object Oriented Programming and whatever comes next we can't forget to include in that mix the substance that these medias must present.

All of the digital knowhow is not going to turn a horrible concept or idea into a brilliant one. Likewise, the best ideas will endure and spread regardless of the media upon which they are presented. Shakespeare's plays are still read today even though they do not contain embedded media and an RSS feed. A fundamental understanding of how to communicate is needed before we expect students of tomorrow to communicate using advanced technology. If we fail to do so all we will have is a Technicolor spray of garbage out.

programmer's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Tools and technologies are rapidly evolving and simplifying our needs. However, new usability concerns and complexities will keep on arising as it is not easy to code the natural interaction process to the programs.

ms's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I think HTML and other scripting languages are still helpful. Why do people insist that HTML isn't programming when it teaches a form of abstraction, just like programming. HTML doesn't facilitate the learning of other programs really, but it's still good for the brain I think. In an intro computers class, I think HTML would be much more valuable. Plus it's quick reward too, which is really important.

When the OLPC came out, I was really stoked about Python becoming even more useful. I think Python (and I guess ruby) are the kinds of programs that can be useful in a number of places. Plus, they get good marks for being easier to type and simpler. I'm still trying to grasp programming. I'm a web graphics / 3D guy and programming would help me in pretty much everything I do, from automating things, to creating mockups, to writing custom apps, to helping people fix what they already have.

Some of the individuals I admire are the ones who are in the scientific field, I've met or read about. I've heard many stories of people who might be in chemistry and they teach themselves programming to do their thesis, and create simulations that advance knowledge. I absolutely think that this type of person has the power of useful knowledge. They are the ones that can create new forms of communication, new products.

I personally think though that we must be close to a new method of programming that is more mainstream for everyone to get. Something that will be the new standard in computing classes. Whether it be invented or decided, we have to get to where we find a way to get everyone on board.

cecil's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

The one who knows "how" will always get a job. The one who knows "why" will always be her boss. (Diane Kravitch)

Programming some HTML/Flash tools is just like doing DIY, I guess this is rather trivial. For major houseworks you'll still go with a contractor because that's a genuine professional job.

True, kids are very fast in learning how to use these tools. But what I'm most amazed with is not "how" they use it but rather "what for" and the type of skills they have developed.

I have a 12 years old girl and the most impressive thing is not how she customizes her myspace page. It is how she googles to search on any topic and come with amazing analysis. This can be music, education, environment etc ... The dictionnary is now one click away, and digital natives love using it. As a result they understand the world in a much quicker way then we did when we were their age.

They are used to deal with massive amount information and they've developed ability to quickly digest it. Techie tools have just changed the education tempo in that respect.

Sister's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

this is just a joke. Send him to your local college to teach.

oddpodz's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I found this article via noahbrier.com and I'm glad we did.
I wish this article had been around two years ago. We had the idea for a Web development project that we wanted to come to life. We thought a great deal about the best way to accomplish our goal (granted a lot has changed in two years), and we chose to stick to our knitting. We would focus on the business side of things and outsource the programming. Since we didn't speak the "language," a great deal was lost in translation - the finished product did not match our vision and the usability factor was dismal. We had to learn the hard way that being programming illiterate can be costly. We also learned that thorough (time consuming) planning is essential. If you are going to outsource programming (lots of people will still have to) you need to spend lots of time mapping out every imaginable detail ahead of time so that you don't have to backtrack and rebuild after the project is delivered.
So, while I am not convinced that everyone needs to become a programmer, I do believe these three things to be true. 1. Everyone does need a basic understanding of what tools are available and what they do - and how they may be used successfully. 2. People need a strong command of spoken and written word so that their ideas, vision and instructions are crystal clear and the technology will work the way the creator of the idea imagined that they would. 3. Don't forget to make sure that you think about the project from a users perspective!

Brian's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I agree with this article that programming computers will become a standard skill. Not that everyone will become a professional-level software engineer, capable of designing and building large projects with specialized tools. But they will be able to add useful scripts within the software tools they use, which are everywhere these days.

As an example, spreadsheet applications such as Excel have a built-in programming language. In Excel it's called Visual Basic (VB for short). By adding VB scripts to your spreadsheet, you literally catapult the power of your spreadsheet modeling into a new realm. (Programs you add inside your app are often called "scripts", or "macros".)

Without a VB script, you can use a fixed formula to calculate a spreadsheet cell's value from other cell values. With a script you can choose among 5 formulas (or 500), depending on whatever conditions you specify, such as the values in some other cells.

By adding a bit of programming you move from a highly useful, but somewhat constrained tool, to an infinitely flexible tool. No matter what quirky wrinkles you want to model, in business, science, engineering, etc., programming lets you do it.

It's not just Excel that has a built-in programming language. All the other Microsoft Office apps - Word, PowerPoint, Access - can also have automation added with Visual Basic. The Flash animation app has a language called ActionScript that gives you much fuller control of your animations. Computer Aided Design (CAD) software used by engineers and drafters, and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software for controlling factory robots have built-in programming languages. If you make yourself a website, you can use the JavaScript built into today's browsers. And that's only part of what's out there today. And more is surely coming.

Knowing the basics of how software is built is also very helpful for collaborating with others who are building the software, as oddpodz points out in his post.

Getting started in programming has historically been a real chore. This has kept out most people who aren't programming enthusiasts. As the article notes, this has made it a "thorny" problem for educators, especially at the high school and middle school levels.

That barrier has recently been removed, however. A new "interactive documentary" approach has been found to give students an easy, enjoyable, and efficient entry into the world of programming. The students also feel more comfortable with software in general from de-mystifying how their point-and-click applications work. More information on this approach, and available materials, is at http://www.basicmoves.com .

brian's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I agree with this article that programming computers will become a standard skill. Not that everyone will become a professional-level software engineer, capable of designing and building large projects with specialized tools. But they will be able to add useful scripts within the software tools they use, which are everywhere these days.

As an example, spreadsheet applications such as Excel have a built-in programming language. In Excel it's called Visual Basic (VB for short). By adding VB scripts to your spreadsheet, you literally catapult the power of your spreadsheet modeling into a new realm. (Programs you add inside your app are often called "scripts", or "macros".)

Without a VB script, you can use a fixed formula to calculate a spreadsheet cell's value from other cell values. With a script you can choose among 5 formulas (or 500), depending on whatever conditions you specify, such as the values in some other cells.

By adding a bit of programming you move from a highly useful, but somewhat constrained tool, to an infinitely flexible tool. No matter what quirky wrinkles you want to model, in business, science, engineering, etc., programming lets you do it.

It's not just Excel that has a built-in programming language. All the other Microsoft Office apps - Word, PowerPoint, Access - can also have automation added with Visual Basic. The Flash animation app has a language called ActionScript that gives you much fuller control of your animations. Computer Aided Design (CAD) software used by engineers and drafters, and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software for controlling factory robots have built-in programming languages. If you make yourself a website, you can use the JavaScript built into today's browsers. And that's only part of what's out there today. And more is surely coming.

Knowing the basics of how software is built is also very helpful for collaborating with others who are building the software, as oddpodz points out in his post.

jimmy smithson's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Hi,

I am 14 years old and can program a little bit in perl, php, java, assembly, pascal, fortran, flash, C#, C+, VBasic, and a few others. I probably spend 8+ hours a day online or studying, but I know that I will be set for the future if I can master all these languages. I plan to use my next 4 years of high school and every second of my summers on learning programming. I know that in this global economy, it is the only way to get ahead. I think more kids should do like me.

Lena Dahlman's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I really don't think it should be that way. It will not be the trend in the future. Programming is for special people but it doesn't mean it is the new literacy. Learning multiple languages still has its advantages. Finally, reading and writing will still be an important part in the days to come.

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