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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

The 21st-Century Digital Learner

How tech-obsessed iKids would improve our schools.
By Marc Prensky
Credit: David Julian

I give presentations to educators at every level, all around the world. All of the teachers are earnestly trying to adapt their educational system to the twenty-first century. During my talks, however, I typically look out at oceans of white hair. Never -- I can't even say rarely -- is a kid in sight or invited to the party.

It is a measure of the malaise of our educational system that these old folk -- smart and experienced as they may be -- think they can, by themselves and without the input of the people they're trying to teach, design the future of education.

One of the strangest things in this age of young people's empowerment is how little input our students have into their own education and its future. Kids who out of school control large sums of money and have huge choices on how they spend it have almost no choices at all about how they are educated -- they are, for the most part, just herded into classrooms and told what to do and when to do it. Unlike in the corporate world, where businesses spend tens of millions researching what their consumers really want, when it comes to how we structure and organize our kids' education, we generally don't make the slightest attempt to listen to, or even care, what students think about how they are taught.

This is unacceptable and untenable. It's also dangerous. We treat our students the way we treated women before suffrage -- their opinions have no weight. But just as we now insist that women have an equal voice in politics, work, and other domains, we will, I predict, begin accepting and insisting that students have an equal voice in their own education. Or else our students will drop out (as they are doing), shoot at us (ditto), sue us, riot, or worse.

So, whenever and wherever I speak, I do my best to bring my own students to the meetings. I ask my hosts to select a panel of a half-dozen or so kids of different grade levels, genders, and abilities to talk with me and the audience. I ask only that the students be articulate and willing to speak their minds in front of an audience of educators. Some groups embrace the idea enthusiastically; others are wary. A few tell me they "just can't find" kids -- and this, from teachers -- or cite some rule that prevents kids from being there. Nonetheless, I persist, both hoping for an effective panel and believing that the group will provide a model for integrating student input about their education into schooling and planning.

Credit: David Julian

What do I find? Almost all the groups are pleased and surprised by the result. In fact, the student panels are generally the highlight of my appearances. This comment after a discussion in front of the West Virginia Department of Education is typical: "It was the best thing we've ever done."

By design, I typically don't meet the students until just before I speak, and my only instructions are to "tell the truth as much as you feel comfortable." I never know what the kids are going to say. One colleague told me, "That's really brave." I don't see it that way. I see the panels as an opportunity to hear what the students think -- whatever that may be. Listening to our students is always interesting and worthwhile, whether the kids are speaking their own minds (almost always the case) or whether they are channeling careful coaching they have received in advance from their teachers and parents (which happens occasionally, and is always quite obvious).

My approach, when conducting these panels, is to first ask the students a few setup questions:

  • What experiences in school really engaged you?
  • How do you use technology in school as opposed to outside of school?
  • What are your pet peeves?

The kids are allowed to pass if they don't want to answer, which takes some of the pressure off, and the audience is invited to join in later.

Every one of these panels is unique, but certain common threads emerge: The students generally express a variety of feelings -- gratitude for the good teachers they have, and frustration with the greater number they find not so good. They are full of ideas but often skeptical that things are going to change much.

So why am I, at the ripe old age of sixty-two, the person who gives students a voice? Perhaps it's because the students agree with what I have to say. (They usually hear my talk before the panel.) Perhaps it's because I communicate somehow to the kids that I truly respect their opinions. It turns out that not everyone can moderate these panels successfully, especially at first. It takes a willingness to accept whatever is said -- good or bad, agree or disagree. But it is important for educators to try, because they so rarely converse with their kids about how they want to learn.

When I first started doing these panels, I regret, I took no notes. But over the past year I have tried to write down as many of the comments as possible. I have heard some enormously insightful comments from the students, particularly about the differences between students and their teachers. "There is so much difference between how students think and how teachers think," offered a female student in Florida. A young man commented, "You think of technology as a tool. We think of it as a foundation -- it's at the basis of everything we do."

"A lot of teachers make a PowerPoint and they think they're so awesome," said a girl in Florida. "But it's just like writing on the blackboard." A student in Albany, New York, pleaded the case for using technology in the classroom: "If it's the way we want to learn, and the way we can learn, you should let us do it."

One teacher queried, "Do computers cut you off from the world?" Not at all, said an excited student: "We share with others and get help. Technology helps -- it strengthens interactions so we can always stay in touch and play with other people. I've never gone a day without talking to my friends online."

One California high school served up a dose of common sense: "Kids grew up around computers. They love them. Their computers are their second teachers at home." A student in West Virginia offered this nugget: "If I were using simulation in school, that would be the sweetest thing ever!"

More than half of all secondary school students are excited about using mobile devices to help them learn; only 15 percent of school leaders support this idea.

Source: Project Tomorrow. Credit: David Julian

Blah, Blah, Blah

OK, so kids love computers. They all agree on that. There's another thing they agree on: No matter where I go in the world -- the United States, Canada, Europe, Asia, Australia, or New Zealand -- students are mind-numbingly bored in class. Listen up:


"I'm bored 99 percent of the time." (California)

"School is really, really boring." (Virginia)

"We are so bored." (Texas)

"Engage us more." (Texas)

"[My teachers] bore me so much I don't pay attention." (Detroit)

"Pointless. I'm engaged in two out of my seven classes." (Florida)


"The disconnect between what students want and what they're receiving is significant," said Julie Evans, CEO of Project Tomorrow, which tracks youth culture. "Student frustration is rising."

I've heard some teachers claim that this is nothing new. Kids have always been bored in school. But I think now it's different. Some of the boredom, of course, comes from the contrast with the more engaging learning opportunities kids have outside of school. Others blame it on today's "continuous partial attention" (CPA), a term coined by Linda Stone, who researches trends and their consumer implications. Stone describes CPA as the need "to be a live node on the network," continually text messaging, checking the cell phone, and jumping on email. "It is an always-on, anywhere, anytime, anyplace behavior that involves an artificial sense of constant crisis," she writes. "We pay continuous partial attention in an effort not to miss anything."

CPA differs from multitasking, which is motivated by a desire to be more efficient and typically involves tasks that demand little cognitive processing. We file and copy while we're talking on the phone and checking email, for instance.

Is this really new? I don't think so. In fact, I think it has always been the case. Excluding emergencies, or other experiences in which one's adrenaline is flowing, humans typically always have multiple things on their minds. Still others attribute the boredom to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, but the T-shirt I recently saw a kid wearing in Rockefeller Center belies this theory: "It's Not Attention Deficit -- I'm Just Not Listening!"

It's none of the above. If you believe the opinions of kids around the world (and you ignore them at your peril), the source of the problem is abundantly clear, and it's this: Today's kids hate being talked at. They hate when teaching is simply telling. They hate lectures and tune them out.

I've heard teachers argue that some subjects and topics need to have lectures, but, in truth, this is only a justification for the failure of those teachers to change how they teach. It is absolutely not true; there are other ways, in any discipline, to get students to learn exactly the same material without lectures -- as well as without worksheets, something else the kids tell us they really hate.

There are better ways to help them learn, and students expect us, as the adults in the room, to know how to use them. They say, for example, "If you made it more interesting we would respond better." And, "If you give us a goal to get to, we'll get there."

Students universally tell us they prefer dealing with questions rather than answers, sharing their opinions, participating in group projects, working with real-world issues and people, and having teachers who talk to them as equals rather than as inferiors. Hopefully, this is useful information for teachers and other educators -- and it is important that educators realize just how universal these opinions are.

Nearly two-thirds of secondary school students want to use laptops, cell phones, or other mobile devices at school.

Source: Project Tomorrow. Credit: David Julian

"My Brain Is Exploding . . ."

For me, though, the best part of the student panels is always hearing the kids' answers to my final question. I ask about their experience that day and whether their soapbox proved useful. "How do you like being able to talk to your teachers and supervisors about your learning?" I ask. I truly love their answers:


"I like the fact that we become equals. Students do not get the opportunity that often to share their ideas. If students and teachers could collaborate, a lot more would get done." (Anaheim, California)

"A lot of students care -- you just don't realize it." (Poway, California)

"Most of the time, the teachers are talking and I want to go to sleep. But now my brain is exploding." (Poway, California)

"Don't let this be a onetime thing." (Poway, California)

"I think it's important that you take time to see what we feel." (West Virginia)

"Now you know what we think and how we feel. Hopefully, that will go to the heart." (Texas)

"I waited twelve years for this." (Texas)

"I wouldn't have believed it if I hadn't seen it!" (Texas)

"As a general rule, you don't hear from kids unless they've gotten into trouble." (Anaheim, California)

"Both groups [teachers and students] can learn from each other." (Anaheim, California)

"If you don't talk to us, you have no idea what we're thinking." (Hawaii)


Clearly, the kids find it valuable to share with their educators their opinions on how they want to learn. Although skeptical, they hope those teachers and administrators who are trying to improve their education think so, too, and listen carefully to what the students have to say. Again, quoting the kids:


"It would be good if teachers have this conversation with us on the first day. But often, they don't change anything." (Texas)

"I hope this didn't just go in one ear and out the other." (Texas)


Have there been any quantifiable results in terms of real changes to the students' daily lives? It's hard (and probably early) to tell, although I do know for certain that the panels have had an influence on the administrators in the audiences. Many superintendents have invited me back to do the talks and panels again for their principals and teachers. Australian administrators distributed a three-CD set of the kids' discussions to every teacher they supervise. My great hope is that, once modeled, these types of conversations will be repeated frequently in our schools, in the United States, and around the world.

Bottom-Up Input

After hosting dozens of these conversations, I realize one thing: We just don't listen enough to our students. The tradition in education has been not to ask the students what they think or want, but rather for adult educators to design the system and curriculum by themselves, using their "superior" knowledge and experience.

But this approach no longer works. Not that the inmates should run the asylum, but as twenty-first-century leaders in business, politics, and even the military are finding out, for any system to work successfully in these times, we must combine top-down directives with bottom-up input. As the students have told me on more than one occasion, "We hope educators take our opinions into account and actually do something!" Until we do, their education will not be the best we can offer.

Marc Prensky is a speaker, writer, consultant, and game designer in the critical areas of education and learning. He is the author of Digital Game-Based Learning and Don't Bother Me, Mom, I'm Learning.

Comments (66)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Bill Lammers's picture

While it is great to hear about students getting the chance to speak their opinions (I will agree that it doesn't happen enough in the sense of academic planning) my first question is "which part of the student population do the student panels come from?" Considering our own school, I could easily pick out the kids who would speak up and say thinks similar to those students on the panel referred to in the article: probably college bound, probably taking AP or other accelerated courses, probably have access to several different kinds of technology at home.

I teach at a school that has been recognized by the state and in national publications for its efforts to prepare students for college and for motivating students to take AP tests and excel at them. Our school is also "A School In Need of Assistance" per No Child Left Behind. This points to the diversity in our school - ethnically, socioeconomically, and due to the floods of 2008, geographically. I would love to say that all of our students would be similar to those on Prensky's panels, but I can't. I don't think these would be the typical students on a large scale basis. Perhaps in specific locations, but not universally.

I am encouraged when I read articles like this and the directions that they lead us - but there needs to be more study and data to support the conclusions.

Sara's picture

I think we have come a long way in the two years since this article was published, Marc. In the school district where I work, the student voice is often sought. From student panels interviewing superintendents to students shooting video recordings discussing the best reading strategies, student input is valued.

But, while students may have wonderful ideas about what and how they want to learn, there are always glitches. I believe that many of the problems with the way school is set up is grounded in politics. The public wants to see raising test scores. So, teachers, bound with fear, teach to the test--not veering off course in any direction. Washington needs to place value not in test scores, but in individual student growth--where the student defines his/her own growth. This is probably the case for the world at large, not just the United States.

Also, we need to change the way teachers are trained. Perhaps the teachers of the teachers even need to change. I'm not sure how--maybe include business instructors and high school student panels : )

And, funding. Students feel engaged and not bored when using technology. Well, we need help out here making that a possibility. Wireless connections in the schools, funding to help "free and reduced" lunch recipients own laptops, money to build and maintain buildings that are "up to code." (The 100 year old building I teach at does not have the needed electrical work to support the ways students want to learn.)

So, I think students should now help us (teachers) and help themselves by taking these issues up with those that can activate change. We hear you loud and clear students, but we need help.

We're on our way, but have a long way to go!

B Day's picture

I work for an organization that is heavily focused on training. A lot of our efforts each year are spent receiving feedback and revamping sessions as a result of what of in information provide by learners. I would agree that it is important to ask the learner for input on design instruction. Learning is rarely facilitated when ears are closed and eyes are shut. I applaud this educator for including students in panels. Hopefully, those in positions to educate are reading reading materials like this with an open mind/heart to make changes in the education system.

B Day's picture

I applaud the author the insisting students be represented on panels. I work for an organization that is heavily focused on training, we spend a lot of time receiving feedback from our audience to make our trainings more applicable each year. This process is vital to the success of our program. At any age, we all appreciate it when our voice is heard and when change is made because of it. Learning is rarely facilitated with closed ears and shut eyes. I hope other educators and 'powers that be' are taking lesson like these to heart to affect change in school systems across the world.

Catherine M. Olson's picture

Yes, successful teachers learned the first year that you have to truly respect teens to earn any "cred" with them. High school students can spotty "phoniness" faster than Holden in Catcher in the Rye. Listening to their voices is important. I don't believe it is as magical as this author suggests; teens feeling empowered hasn't been a problem in the schools I have taught. And there ARE times info needs to be conveyed from a teacher to a student...just as a parent teaches a child. But, it is a good reminder that teens need to be acknowledged and involved in their education.

Tamon Rasberry's picture

I completely agree with Mr. Prensky about involving students more into the learning process in schools. I think that when a student can feel like he/she is involved in what their learning the urge to want to learn is that much greater. Why shouldn't students have a say in what and how they are taught? As upcoming educators it should be our jobs to want to engage a student in their learning.Instead of just constantly making a student feel they're being talked at. Mr. Prensky had a brilliant idea about bringing children to faculty meetings to see how they really feel about education.
Education shouldn't just have to be something that's taught where there is only a right and wrong way. I believe there can be many different views to how to go about teaching. I think of myself now as a student and what teaching styles have worked for me in the past to help myself learn. I do learn better when I feel more involved in the learning process. I think it makes students feel more validity in their work and what they process. I would like to be an educator who inspires students to want to do well and I completely agree with Mr. Prensky when he comments that the way to do this is by involving students and listening to their opinions.

LeAnne Arnold's picture

Everyone loves to be heard. I think it is great that steps are being made to allow students to have a say in how they can learn the best. There are too many people that were skipped over in life or made to feel inferior due to the fact that on paper it didn't look like they were learning when in a real life situation they excelled. We all learn in our unique ways and if technology is the way for students today then they deserve that opportunity.

Jennifer Moro's picture

This is a great article introduced to me by my professor. This explains why I registered for the internet class I am taking. The use of technology and the internet, instead of just a boring lecture, or book, has sparked my interest even more. I typically sign up for on-line only classes as I get bored in class very easily. This class in particular has made me excited again about actually going to school. It is no longer a drag, but something I have come to enjoy.

David Cruz's picture

I couldn't agree more with the author of this article. The way the school system is set up today is the same way the school system was set up centuries ago. Think of how far society has advanced since then and how the workforce of the world has changed in demands as well as transformed from an industrial workforce to a service industry. school was designed to teach kids obedience and prepared them for jobs in the labor industry for factories. There is an amazing TED talks speech by a very enlightened speaker who explains this far better then i could ever hope to. Check out Mr. Ken Robinson here's a link. Schools KILL creativity and teach obedience. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDZFcDGpL4U

Alan Fraser's picture

The author presents some interesting points about engaging students in their own education. Businesses are always talking about "engaging employees" in their work, so you would think that the idea would carry over. Unfortunately, school is meant to prepare you for a career in business and the traffic flows only one way. The author talks about bringing his own students to the discussions and asking educators on the panel to select other students to participate. The problem I see with that is that in the selection process of the students the high probability of confirmation bias is likely to enter into the equation and the author as well as the other educators are likely to select those individuals that most closely share their same views. Hence, no really new comments will be presented. The article presents a problem and ways to perhaps find a solution, but why is no solution presented. In life, the devil is in the details and in business, if you present a problem, you're expected to already have some type of solution in mind for it. I don't see that here.

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