Facebook
Edutopia on Facebook
Twitter
Edutopia on Twitter
Google+
Edutopia on Google+
Pinterest
Edutopia on Pinterest Follow Me on Pinterest
WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

Bullying in the Schools Will Not End Until We Change Our Pragmatic Strategies.

Bullying in the Schools Will Not End Until We Change Our Pragmatic Strategies.

More Related Discussions
32 Replies 1787 Views
During OPB's Think Out Loud Program, a student from the Student Government at Grant High School in Portland, indicated that students are afraid to be alone in the locker rooms.. Further, the Principal Vivian Orlen shared that due to an incident involving the basketball team, the issue of hazing, bullying, and harassment has become a topic of conversation n and concern. Bullying has become an epidemic in Oregon! A surveyed conducted in 2009 by the Oregon Students of Color Coalition found that, “ 41% of eights graders in Oregon reported being subjected to name-calling, bullying or other embarrassment at school with the highest rates among the students of color, girls, and gays.” The problem come to the attention of the federal government, and President Barack Obama in a white house conference to deal with the phenomenon of bullying in the United States declared that, “ As parents and students, as teachers and members of the community, we can take steps—all of us-to help prevent bullying and create a climate in our schools in which all of our children can feel safe; a climate in which they all can feel like they belong.” The phenomenon of bullying is a problem that has existed since the schools were created, and it is not going to improve from one day to another. Many solutions directed to prevent bullying focus in raising awareness, school policies and procedures, mediation, and short term training. These approaches are too pragmatic, and they don't work. Research that from emerged from the Center of Behavioral Research from the University of Stavanger in Norway in the 1990s ad later from several Universities such as Clemson in the United States support that the best known solution to preventing and eradicating bullying is the whole-school approach. From this perspective there needs to be a systemic change where students, teachers, school management, parents create a plan with attainable objectives, and activities directed to achieve the reduction of bullying. Whole-school approach programs are about 12-18 months, and both human and financial resources are needed. The main objective is to create an environment where everyone is confident that bullying will not be tolerated and the creation of an emotional environment conducive to learning and the development of healthy relationships. On a 2009 report, Experts from UNICEF argued that positive emotional environments tend to increase academic performance. It is only when we decide as a society that education is a real priority, and we allocate the resources accordingly that issues such as bullying will disappear from our schools.

Comments (32 Replies)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

M. A. Hauck, M.Ed's picture
M. A. Hauck, M.Ed
Life Skills Support Teacher

[quote] (or using the death penalty to deter murders);[/quote]

The death penalty works every time it's tried.

M. A. Hauck, M.Ed's picture
M. A. Hauck, M.Ed
Life Skills Support Teacher

[quote]
It doesn't make sense to me to use threats of violence to help students understand that using violence to get their needs met is wrong. Aren't we just bullying them into behaving?[/quote]

Let's put it this way ... societies around the world prospered and progressed for centuries quite nicely by using corporal punishment as means of behavior management with children. But, since WW2, a bunch of know-it-all boomers and their allies in the medical professional decided that it's no longer a good idea. The negative impact of psychological theory since the beginning of the 20th century can't be discounted, either. Your hero Maria Montessori is just one who ran with these theories regarding child development. Interestingly, most of my family were raised in very strict convents or priests' schools in Italy the 40s and 50s that believed in corporal punishment and guess what? They turned out fine.

And of course, the harm of building child "self-esteem" to an absurd proportion creates kids who think they are too "special" and therefore, beyond reproach.

Let me say again that I am not a proponent of random or vicious punishment. It has to be properly motivated, consistent in when and how it's done, and explained to the child why it's being done.

Mary Kate Land's picture
Mary Kate Land
Montessori 4-6th grade teacher
Blogger 2014

Mr. Hauck,

Will you speak to the ideas I have presented about the crime and delinquency rates in locales where corporal punishment either occurs or does not?

Please explain your reference to "The negative impact of psychological theory..." Is there a particular theory you'd like to discuss? There have been an awful lot of confilcting theories put forth in the past 115 years.

I'm willing to engage in a reasoned debate about the efficacy of punishment as a teaching tool, but I think we ought to be systematic in our approach.

Sound Social/Emotional Learning approaches (and I include discipline under that heading) neither punish students nor "reward" them with unrealistic expectations of themselves and the world around them. Those approaches to creating positive school culture which seem most promising (and the research on this is still very new) are those which use cognitive strategies to build communication skills while working with stakeholders (parent/child/teacher) to establish basic procedures for handling conflict.

You can learn more about the latest research in this area by consulting the CASEL website. They serve as a clearinghouse for information on the best approaches to combatting bullying in schools (as well as other SEL topics).

I find your last post particularly inflammatory given the certainty that the death penalgty has gone terribly wrong in the past. DNA evidence has clearly demonstrated that we have executed people who were entirely innocent of their crimes.

Karen's picture
Karen
Sixth grade math teacher from San Rafael, California

At our school we are using a protocol that has ended bullying everytime we use it - Solution Team at NoBully.com. I run the teams at our large diverse urban school, and every time the incidents of bullying have ended. The protocol teaches empathy and responsibility. Check it out. The trainings are great and inexpensive, and the model does not take much time or staffing.

Kathy's picture

For me, the problem with establishing a hierachy of punishment (whether through the rod or the record book) is that it removes personal responsibility from the individual and keeps the adage of "might makes right" alive. The goal for me is not just in securing a peaceful learning environment, but educating peaceful human beings. I'm interested in ideas for restorative justice, not punitive measures. Our school currently uses something like a "whole-community" approach, and it doesn't require any funding! Students who threaten or hurt others are made aware of how that behavior affects everyone- through class discussions outside of conflict as well as in meetings with families after an incident. Every situation is treated on an individual basis, which may require teachers to act as mediators if needed. However, many of the older students resolve their conflicts on their own. We have a "you break it, you fix it" philosophy in which the person responsible for the damage (to property or other person) makes the appropriate reparations (overseen by the teacher). I think the most successful strategy to reducing violent or taunting behavior though, is prevention: through honoring multiple intelligences, recognizing individual skills in mixed-age interactions, and an active, flexible curriculum. Especially in adolescence, students have challenging physical work that contributes to the school or wider community (building a picnic table for the playground, doing stream restoration, etc.). I don't have statistics, but my own observations have been that this kind of involvement creates true confidence, self-assurance and respect; this has a positive effect in the classroom. And when they see themselves as capable contributors to the world, there is no need to stand tall on the backs of others. I would be interested to hear what constitutes a "whole school" approach as mentioned in the article, and what the percentages are like at that Portland high school since 2009.

M. A. Hauck, M.Ed's picture
M. A. Hauck, M.Ed
Life Skills Support Teacher

[quote]
Please explain your reference to "The negative impact of psychological theory..." Is there a particular theory you'd like to discuss? There have been an awful lot of confilcting theories put forth in the past 115 years.[/quote]

Yes, some of them have been helpful, others not. The ones that have not often muddy the waters further or exist to fulfill political agendas rather than adhere to hard scientific principle.

I won't discuss those for the obvious reasons. However, as far as punishments go, I know that your own training in the Montessori method impacts your personal philosophy and therefore, would be a a fruitless exercise in trying to convince you that punishments do work when properly applied. It would be as futile as trying to convince Sr. Helen Prejean that serial criminals convicted of multiple felonies deserve the death penalty.

The only way non-violent punishments really can work is if a kid is part of a residential treatment facility on a 24/7 basis for an extended period of time. There, they learn that actions have consequences and that privileges will be taken away if behavioral standards are not met. When you teach in a traditional day school, all the attempts at modifying behavior go for naught as soon as the student is dismissed back to whatever decrepit environment they hail from until the next morning. When those attempts fail, it's time for the legal system to intervene. It's not perfect but no amount of touchy-feely strategies as an alternative work on street-wise kids who respect nothing or no one, including themselves.

What I've described seems to occupy an entirely different world from yours, so naturally, the approach isn't going to be the same. It depends on the kid, their past record, the circumstances, the environment, etc. A kid who is nailed for drug possession and trafficking has to be handled differently from the kid in the classroom who is mouthing off to the teacher. Yet, the latter kid is more often than not the same kid who finds himself in similar circumstances as the former example.

Mary Kate Land's picture
Mary Kate Land
Montessori 4-6th grade teacher
Blogger 2014

Mr. Hauck,

Evidence which is recognized as such by authorities who specialize in evaluating such things would certainly convince me that punishment works. In my study of the matter, however, I have been unable to turn up such evidence.

Your misunderstanding of Montessori practice is quite clear. Above all else, Dr. M advocated the use of scientific evidence in guiding educational methods. We do have copious evidence to support the idea that non violent problem solving supports student learning goals. That's the reason Momtessorians are so gung-ho about non-violence.

Show me the studies that demonstrate that punishment produces robust learning.

M. A. Hauck, M.Ed's picture
M. A. Hauck, M.Ed
Life Skills Support Teacher

My studies, Mary Kate? How about 17 years of direct experience classroom teaching Gen Yers and Millennials and observing their behavior, plus the behavior of their parents, combined with reading scientific evidence that refutes your own. You can copy and paste the link, I don't have the patience to write the html code.

http://www.frc.org/get.cfm?i=IS07K02

It's a Family Research Council article written by two MDs that pretty much shoots a hole in the anti-punishment argument based on their own metastudy of the available literature.

I could supply many more links but what would be the point? It's a highly debatable issue and Dr. M certainly had no corner on the real truth. The anti-punishment faction doesn't even have a consensus opinion.

My observations from 17 years in education, plus being a parent to two children of my own for 14 of those years, lead me to conclude this ... with all this allegedly superiorly permissive and laissez-faire philosophy regarding child-rearing, then why do we have so many more problems with child behavior compared to past generations?

By all logic, we should have a generation of near-perfect children endowed with fully-developed self-esteems who have no need to victimize others to compensate for feelings of inadequacy. A perfect raised child without the knowledge of any stern discipline should not have to feel inadequate and therefore, should not have to feel the need to bully others.

I'm sorry, but this whole advocacy seems weakly supported by a minority voice that can't account for how a lack of punishment makes for better behaved people.

Why not just eliminate prisons while we're at it? I'm sure the case could be made that incarceration doesn't rehabilitate, but only makes people want to continue to be lawbreakers.

This reminds me somewhat of the argument that Alfie Kohn and his adherents make about rewards. They so overrate the value of intrinsic motivation. People prove again and again that they are extrinsically motivated. Kids and grown-ups, in general, do not learn important lessons without dire consequences being imposed. We are an obstinate species who typically need to learn things the hard way. That's reality. I could live in the idealistic netherworld of the university classroom thinking about what mankind could strive to be but that would be a grand waste of time. It's better to acknowledge, accept, and proceed.

Mary Kate Land's picture
Mary Kate Land
Montessori 4-6th grade teacher
Blogger 2014

Mr. Hauck,

Thank you for providing searchable references for your claims.

The work you are citing is an article from a website hosted by a group which promotes the use of corporal punishment. It is not an example of research. Many of the studies cited within this article are either misinterpreted by the authors (see below) or seriously flawed. The experts who wrote it don't seem to be associated with much else besides that article and an association with the FRC (not exactly an unbiased source of information). If they were serious about engaging in debate on the subject, why wouldn't they submit their claims to a peer-reviewed journal, thereby engaging in the process of science?

I find it fascinating that the survey of pediatricians cited by these authors returned a result of 70% favoring the use of spanking, while the American Academy of Pediatrics lists these results for their recent survey:

Positions taken by members of the Academy:
Between 1997-OCT and 1998-MAR, the Academy conduced a mail survey to 1,629 active members, selected at random from their membership lists. They obtained a response rate of 62% which is unusually high for this type of survey. "The survey defined corporal punishment as 'the use of spanking as a form of discipline. It does not include hitting, beating or other actions that might be considered child abuse'." 5

Results were:

31.4% were completely opposed to the use of corporal punishment.
53.4% generally oppose corporal punishment, but feel that an occasional spanking under certain circumstances can be effective.
13.6% favor the limited use of corporal punishment.
1.5% were unsure.

When asked whether "Pediatricians must try to eliminate the practice of spanking as a form of discipline:"

50% agreed
30% disagreed
20% were unsure. 4

When asked about their methods of disciplining their own children:

35% used spanking as one form of discipline.
Fewer than 1% said that spanking was their most common disciplinary technique. 5

Another aspect of the article which you linked which surprised me was the citation of the Eron article to support the idea that spanking is effective even though it showed no correlation between the use of punishment in addressing aggressive behavior and later aggressive tendencies. If punishment were effective, we should expect to see an effect when it is used.

Some of the research cited by this article very clearly supports the idea that corporal punishment is unnecessary and potentially dangerous.
A direct quote from Eron (cited by the study referenced):

Certainly there are enough data, which Dr Hyman has assembled over 20 years, to warrant the measures he advocates to get the message out to the public as well as to concerned professionals, and to formulate public policy aimed at eliminating corporal punishment in our schools as well as all other settings, including the home.

Personal experience also does not constitute evidence in the traditional sense, reinforcing as it may be.

Even the latest research indicates that most parents report using spanking as part of their parenting repertoire. Does that prove that spanking is the culprit for the increase in disrespectful behavior you've observed?

Please bring on the links to the evidence you have seen concerning the efficacy of the use of corporal punishment. I am truly interested in evaluating the claims of those who advocate hitting children in the process of teaching them. A number of links from a variety of sources would be much more compelling than the "evidence" you continue to use to support your position.

MK

Kevin Crosby's picture
Kevin Crosby
Educator and School Counselor / Trinidad School District #1

This conversation has veered from one about preventing bullying to a debate about corporal punishment. A few thoughts on both:

First, bullying tends to get worse in middle school. Spanking a thirteen year old borders on perverse, especially when the adult is not a relative and there has been no opportunity for a relationship of trust to develop prior to the punishment. I have seen one middle school student spanked by a principal in the 21st century. That student is now incarcerated. I was spanked by a gym teacher when I was in seventh grade. That teacher also approached me when I was half dressed in the locker room, stroked my hair, and started explaining how he didn't usually like long hair on boys (this was 1974 in Montana), but that my hair was "smooth and beautiful." I later vandalized the school, including launching a full classroom set of English texts out the third floor window into the mud.

Second, corporal punishment teaches students, especially older students, that the only people allowed to bully in the school are the adults. I was also relentlessly bullied in the junior high school even though students feared physical violence from the teachers and principal. I saw a girl have her head shoved in a trash can by a teacher, and a dope-smoking teen get dragged by his hair out of the bathroom by the vice-principal (the same V.P. that shook my hand and thanked me for beating up a ringleader of bullies). Oh, yes, those were the good old days.

Third, getting back to the issue of relationship. I have read that corporal punishment for younger students can be effective, but only if the child knows and trusts the person administering the punishment. Without that relationship of trust it serves to traumatize the child.

Fourth, does anyone really believe that children fear a spanking? Come on. When I was spanked (with a board) in junior high I don't even remember physical pain. What I remember is the humiliation (it was administered publicly in front of my entire class) and the strong desire to retaliate, just like the retaliation I inflicted upon the student who bullied me. Some educators already fear retaliation from disgruntled students. Start spanking teens in the 21st century and see how that works out for you.

Fifth, if Mr. Hauck and his siblings turned out alright, it is likely because the corporal punishment used in the home was done with a measure of consistency and in an atmosphere of caring. Imposing corporal punishment in school when the home environment is either laissez faire or abusive is a recipe for disaster.

Lastly, the good old days were not so great. Plenty of bullying happened then, but people didn't talk about it, boys were boys and were expected to man up, and like my experience, I had to learn to defend myself from the bullies in the school yard and in the teachers' lounge and principal's office. Yup, those were the good old days. I do believe social bullying with girls has increased, but I'm not sure there is data to support that. There is certainly plenty of media that encourage it, including tv/movies as well as social media that make it easier for cowards to bully from the sanctity of their bedrooms.

Yes, research has shown that whole school approaches like Olweus are most effective, and they do not need to include corporate punishment. Mr. Hauck is pining for a world that never really existed. Living in fear of physical and emotional violence from adults is no better than living in fear of physical and emotional violence from peers. Worse yet, corporal punishment teaches students that physical violence is an acceptable way to control people. It encourages a do-what-I-say-and-be-like-me-or-I'll-kick-your-ass culture.

How about the Golden Rule? A rule, by the way, that applies equally to children and adults.

P.S. The good old days, when we had corporal punishment and gay bashing was a socially acceptable sport. Just ask Mr. Romney.

Sign in and Join the Discussion! Not a member? Register to join the discussion.