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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

Confronting the Crisis in Teacher Training

Innovative schools of education invent better ways to prep educators for the classroom.
Grace Rubenstein
Former senior producer at Edutopia
Credit: Thomas Reis

Melissa Zipper needs less than a second to tally the value of her teacher-preparation experience: "Nothing."

Looking back on the nine-month master's degree program, she elaborates, "I was reading about all these theories and creating hypothetical lessons and seating charts, but they had no real-world application. Every class I had was based on this utopian group of kids who all spoke English and functioned at the same level. I never learned how to modify or accommodate the diverse needs that I would find in my room."

Unprepared, Zipper began her first day as an intern sixth-grade teacher in a high-poverty neighborhood in East Palo Alto, California, fully responsible, with next to no support from her university. Sound scary? This is scarier: Zipper's alma mater (which she requested not be identified) is one of the largest producers of teachers in California, credentialing about 2,700 people a year.

Cut to Boston, where Maria Fenwick spent a full year working alongside a mentor teacher through the district-sponsored Boston Teacher Residency. By the time she became a full-fledged fourth-grade teacher, she knew the local curriculum, the community, and the daily demands of education, and she was hungry for her own classroom. She recalls, "I knew what to expect every step of the way."

The crisis confronting teacher education is that, across the country, Fenwick's experience is the exception and Zipper's is the rule. Though there are some leading lights, far too many of America's 1,200-plus schools of education are mired in methods that isolate education from the arts and sciences, segregate the theory and practice of teaching, and provide insufficient time and support for future teachers to learn to work in real classrooms. Far too many universities, for their part, run education programs on the cheap.

The consequences are painfully clear: Half of all new educators abandon the profession within five years, costing schools an estimated $2.6 billion annually and leaving children in the neediest areas with the highest number of inexperienced teachers.

The delinquency in teacher preparation is nothing new, of course -- but it's growing more dire as we ask teachers to perform increasingly challenging tasks: to teach more complex skills to high and measurable standards, and to ensure that every child in an incredibly diverse generation learns these skills equally well. The three R's are not enough anymore.

Based on scientific research, good teaching is one thing we know makes a big difference in children's learning. (Researchers at the University of Tennessee in 1996 found that elementary school students who had three highly effective teachers in a row achieved math scores more than fifty percentile points higher than those who had three ineffective teachers in a row.) The challenge now is to figure out how to make a good teacher -- or, as Thomas Carroll, president of the National Commission on Teaching and America's Future (NCTAF), puts it, "to close the gap between the way we prepare teachers and the way teachers actually teach in the classroom."

Nadirah Muhammad, Boston Teacher Residency:

"My mentor teacher is an amazing woman. She has a very strong presence in the classroom, and the students know that she means business and that she cares."

Credit: Gregory Cherin

Dozens of education schools -- and a few independent agencies, such as the Boston Public Schools -- are pioneering ways to do that. The research on how well these new methods work ranges from nascent to nonexistent so far, but these early models provide a compass for how to begin building better programs -- changes that hold the promise to better equip would-be teachers and, by extension, their future students for success.

Devil's Bargain

So-called normal schools, the precursors to today's schools of education, emerged in the mid-1800s to staff a growing number of classrooms, reports Stanford University historian David Labaree. To meet demands for more accessible higher education, they evolved into four-year teachers' colleges and then state colleges and universities by about 1960. In the late 1900s, some universities that didn't have colleges of education grew them.

From the outset, teacher-training programs faced what Labaree calls a "devil's bargain" between quantity and quality: producing enough teachers to meet demand, or preparing fewer teachers to high standards. Under pressure, he says, they chose quantity.

The sheer numbers of education students (who earn more than 7 percent of the bachelor's degrees and 29 percent of the master's degrees granted nationwide), combined with a focus "more on adequacy than on quality," Labaree says, turned education schools into moneymakers for many universities. "The ed school is the Rodney Dangerfield of higher education," he adds. "It don't get no respect."

No respect doesn't mean no expectations, however, especially not in the past fifteen years or so. A cry for better education programs is rising as the scrutiny on K-12 schools' performance under the No Child Left Behind Act flows upstream to the institutions that prepare teachers. Calls for change have come from both outside and inside teacher education. Add to that the growing competition from alternative certification pathways and homegrown programs like Boston's -- such avenues produced about 41,000 of the 220,000 graduates of teacher-preparation programs in 2004 -- and education schools are feeling the pressure.

"Criticisms of the teacher-education establishment have been so incessant and persistent that the work of that establishment is changing," says Suzanne Wilson, chairwoman of the Department of Teacher Education at Michigan State University's College of Education. "People are not ignoring the critiques anymore."

Prep Gets Real

At the heart of reform in teacher preparation are innovations that provide extensive field experience and link theory more closely with practice.

Barbara Simon, mentor, Boston Teacher Residency:

"Some people have the philosophy that teachers should go right into the fire, and I disagree with that. There's some in-between that's good -- to gradually take on the role with some thought behind it, getting to observe before doing."

Credit: Gregory Cherin

Programs such as Boston's go the furthest by transporting the locus of training almost entirely from the university to the K-12 school. Through the four-year-old residency, supported jointly by the school district and local philanthropies, candidates take summer courses geared toward Boston's history and curriculum, then undergo a yearlong mentorship. The financial package -- an $11,000 stipend plus a forgivable tuition loan -- is designed to attract educators from diverse backgrounds. (Melissa Zipper, who survived her first year with help from an outside mentoring program and is still a teacher, had to shell out $19,000 for her degree.)

In between the stale old university methods and the urban teaching residencies is a practical and promising model that's gaining in reach: the professional-development school. As described by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), these programs are partnerships between teacher-preparation programs and K-12 schools that provide settings for student teaching, faculty development, and field-based research -- unions so intimate that they form a hybrid institution. A typical field placement in these school-university teams -- which, as does the Boston program, liken themselves to medical residencies in teaching hospitals -- lasts a semester or two.

Kansas's Emporia State University was an early adopter of the model. Its Teachers College provides training and ongoing support to mentor educators in its thirty-four professional-development schools. In turn, mentors commit to give student teachers weekly evaluations and opportunities to do everything from individual tutoring to whole-class teaching. University staff visit classrooms regularly to assess candidates' progress and provide feedback. All the while, the educators-in-training reconvene in university classes to debrief and draw connections to theories of education.

"The key to the success of these programs is that no matter what theory students are learning about, they get to see it in practice immediately," says Dean Tes Mehring.

The payoff: The attrition rate of ESU graduates from teaching is a low 7.2 percent after three years, and principals rate alumni highly on a wide range of knowledge and skills.

Measure This

Besides the theory-practice bond, assessment -- the watchword in K-12 schools -- is catching on in teacher preparation. Education schools at the forefront of this change are creating and using various assessments to measure candidates' skills and identify and improve weaknesses in their programs. ESU, for instance, evaluates candidates via tests, observations, and performance tasks at regular intervals; those who perform below par -- about 4 to 5 percent of students per semester -- get dropped from the teaching program.

Pablo Aguilera, Stanford University:

"You can make people go to school for five years and tell them to read any number of books, but they won't really learn anything until they're in an actual classroom."

Credit: Bart Nagel

It may sound odd in this assessment-happy age, but no, education schools have not always done this. Some impetus for change comes from the NCATE, which accredits 632 of the nation's education schools. In 2001, the organization reinvented its standards to demand more evidence of program outcomes ("what candidates know and can do"), not simply inputs such as coursework and field experience.

Two teams of universities have created teaching-performance assessments that could be used more broadly. The Performance Assessment for California Teachers (PACT), developed by thirty public and private universities, embeds various assessments in candidates' coursework and demands a capstone documentation of three to five teaching hours, including lesson plans, videotapes, and student work. Teacher Work Samples, an assessment methodology adopted by eleven schools nationwide in a coalition called the Renaissance Group, use detailed standards and a rubric to evaluate how well candidates teach a four-week unit.

Raymond Pecheone, co-executive director of Stanford University's School Redesign Network and PACT's project director, draws this analogy: "Back in the early '90s, we used to evaluate people's writing by giving them a multiple-choice exam. This is not rocket science, but if you want to test how well people write, you've got to ask them to write. These tests are sorely needed."

Two even more neglected but emerging education-school adaptations are training in how to use technology for learning, and induction support for beginning teachers after graduation.

Road Not Traveled

One problem in the quest for quality is that accountability measures so far have been mainly quantitative, not qualitative. The federal government, via NCLB, demands that, to be "highly qualified," teachers possess expertise in their subject matter and certification from their state. This requirement assumes that certification ensures skill. In reality, states generally focus more on the number and type of candidates' training experiences than the quality.

A state might require 300 hours of student teaching for licensure, for instance, but "rotten schools of education can place bad students in failing K-12 schools with weak teachers" and still meet the requirement, says Arthur Levine, former president of Columbia University's Teachers College and author of the 2006 report "Educating School Teachers."

Further obscuring the best practices, hardly any education schools have ever followed up with alumni to measure their effectiveness on the job -- until now.

"Historically, a school of education could claim to be strong and be recognized around the country with no evidence about how its teachers perform in the classroom," says the NCTAF's Thomas Carroll. "That day is over."

Early efforts at this kind of accountability have used simple surveys -- not the most rigorous form of research, but they're a start.

Another problem: There is little scientific evidence to guide the way. The small pool of research on what works in teacher preparation generally lacks rigor, and it dates to the days before many of these reforms came about. Education researchers have taken notice of the vacuum and have begun working to fill it, but evidence will take years to build.

Click to enlarge picture

Source: Educational Policy, January and March 2000

More challenges lie ahead. To fully commit to a model of professional-development schools, for one, requires money. Emporia State University's Teachers College has managed it through permanent state allocations and strong commitment by the university, as well as by holding vacant some faculty positions and asking students to pay half of their mentor teachers' $500 annual stipends.

Marshall "Mike" Smith, education-program director at the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation and a former education official in the Clinton and Carter administrations, says broad reform will come only if states revise their standards to demand more field experience with good supervision. According to data compiled by the Education Commission of the States, minimum requirements for student teaching now range from 180 hours in Louisiana to 100 days in Maryland. (The most common figure is about twelve weeks.)

States also must commit more money to preparation programs, Smith says, and teachers themselves must demand better training. What could incite that kind of demand? "Evidence that something else worked clearly better," he responds, "which we don't have."

The need is urgent; teachers work at the frontier of everything education is meant to do. Public education itself grapples intimately with big changes in America, from new languages to health epidemics to economic imperatives. Our answer to the challenge of improving teachers' training will influence the experience children have in classrooms -- and the skills with which children enter adult life -- for years to come. It's a question of what kind of future we want to create.

Grace Rubenstein is a senior producer at Edutopia.
Teacher Development Overview

Comments (58)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I can't even begin to say how much of a relief reading these comments has been. I have dealt with administration that seems to think I am the only new teacher who did not know everything when I began teaching right out of college. My liberal arts education prepared me for the content, but not for the load of work that teachers experience. It is something that I had to quickly adjust to. The administration did not want to give me space to adjust, though. They acted as if I should be perfect straight out of high school.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I am constantly discussing with fellow teachers the harsh cold reality of feeling like I was thrown to the wolves after receiving my undergraduate degree and stepping into a classroom. Experience is the best education - period. I believe there is a need to reform the process and undergraduate programs that certify teachers. A person who is highly skilled in his or her content area does not entitle him or her as a good teacher. It's a frustrating process that I see happen in the schools: Intelligent people with horrible teaching skills.

We don't go into teaching for the money! This we all know all to well, but I understand the frustrations in incentive to work harder than others to make a difference. It isn't always comforting, but making a difference is the reason many of us chose this path. I hope everyone stays the course.

Anonymous's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I totally agree with "Anonymous." I have just completed my second year of teaching, and I was very unprepared when I began teaching. Even though I had several practicum experiences and I student taught, I still did not feel prepared.

I was talking with a new teacher this afternoon. I explained to her about all of the emotions that go along with your first year of teaching! It is a wonderful experience! I just wish that teachers were more prepared!

NW's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I've been teaching for 7 years but I remember what it was like being a first year teacher. I wasn't prepared at all! Thank goodness that a close friend of mine from college and I were basically hired together. We both taught 1st grade in rooms right next to each other. We were able to plan and go through the learning process together. It was great! Even though we didn't teach in the same classroom, we basically mirrored each other. I always wonder why 1st year teachers aren't made to team teach with an expert teacher or even with another 1st year teacher. I've seen too many 1st year teachers fail. It's not fair to the kids!

Shirley Neumann's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I think that is a great idea. My first year was a sink or swim experience. I would have love to have an experience teacher to guide me through that first year. However, the team teaching will only work if both party are willing. There are some expert teachers who are not willing to share or spend extra time with a novice, while some novice do not like to admit they need help. I have encounter both types.

Jamie's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I agree with what you are saying about team teaching, and it would offer a great deal of support to new teachers. That's why student teaching is such a rich experience. However, I think it is vital to have the sink or swim experience you are referring to, you learned to swim didn't you? I think rather than team teaching, where you may rely on the experienced teacher rather than work out your own ideas, a mentor is the key piece to a successful new teacher. A mentor is there to answer questions, observe your teaching, go with you to observe other teachers, and most importantly reflect with you on your teaching. The mentor gives the support and advice that new teachers need, while still allowing them to become teachers in their own right. Team teaching is excellent in many situations, but for new teachers, they need the quiet support of a mentor while learning who they are as educators.

Crystal's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I agree that college prepared me to write lesson plans extensively, but it definitely lacked strategies to help me build meaningful relationships with my students. There was not a focus on the importance of boosting students' self esteem and connecting on a personal level. We, as teachers, are expected to develop good character traits in children, but we are not given practical ways to do this. Why don't teacher training programs stress social and emotional learning as much as academic learning? If you ask a young adult to share the impact a "great" teacher had on his life, he will remember a teacher who cared about him and showed it in actions and words.

Shirley Neumann's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I agree that it is also great to have a mentor teacher. As for the team teaching, I think NW's reference to team teaching was two teachers meeting with each other to support each other and brainstorm ideas. They are not teaching in the same classroom.
I understand what you are saying about the sink and swim experience, but there are some new teachers that will not survive the experience and may drop out after the first year or so. I would hate to see some potential good teachers leave before they have a chance to establish themselves. I survived because I am stubborn when it comes to challenges.

Alyssa Knorr's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Wow, after reading this article and then some of the responses it is great to see that I am not completely alone. I was eager to start teaching and I never really felt scared and worried about my preparedness. I will say that because I double majored in regular education and special education, I do feel that my course work in regular education curriculum and strategies was lacking. My program was heavy in special education policy and prodedures. That was great for my first job in special education, but now I am in a regular education kindergarten classroom and I am finding that my reading program is not where I need it to be. I am now trying to get my masters in reading curriculum so that I can gain the information I need in order to make that modifications I need for my students different levels.

William Albertson's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I agree that teachers are often times not prepared for the struggles that they will face in the classroom. I am not sure how these Universities would be able to prepare you for the emotional outbursts in class, the frantic phone calls from parents or the variety of other issues that have been mentioned in this blog. I started teaching at a small rural high school, and my wife started teaching in Oregon's largest high school, both of our experiences were very different. I would have loved to be more prepared and feel that every teacher would agree. I am just not sure how these large University's will better prepare future teachers.

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