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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

The popularity of video games is not the enemy of education, but rather a model for best teaching strategies. Games insert players at their achievable challenge level and reward player effort and practice with acknowledgement of incremental goal progress, not just final product. The fuel for this process is the pleasure experience related to the release of dopamine.

Dopamine Motivation

The human brain, much like that of most mammals, has hardwired physiological responses that had survival value at some point in evolutionary progression. The dopamine-reward system is fueled by the brain's recognition of making a successful prediction, choice, or behavioral response.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that, when released in higher than usual amounts, goes beyond the synapse and flows to other regions of the brain producing a powerful pleasure response. This is a deep satisfaction, such as quenching a long thirst. After making a prediction, choice, or action, and receiving feedback that it was correct, the reward from the release of dopamine prompts the brain seek future opportunities to repeat the action. For animal survival, this promotes life or species-sustaining choices and behaviors, such as following a new scent that leads to a mate or a meal and remembering that scent the next time it is present.

No Pain, No Gain

The survival benefit of the dopamine-reward system is building skills and adaptive responses. The system is only activated and available to promote, sustain, or repeat some mental or physical effort when the outcome is not assured. If there is no risk, there is no reward. If there is no challenge, such as adding single digit numbers by a student who has achieved mastery in adding double-digit numbers, there is activation of the dopamine-reward network.

In humans, the dopamine reward response that promotes pleasure and motivation also requires that they are aware that they solved a problem, figured out a puzzle, correctly answered a challenging question, or achieved the sequence of movements needed to play a song on the piano or swing a baseball bat to hit a home run. This is why students need to use what they learn in authentic ways that allow them to recognize their progress as clearly as they see it when playing video games.

Awareness of Incremental Goal Progress

In a sequential, multilevel video game, feedback of progress is often ongoing, such as accumulating points, visual tokens, or celebratory sound effects, but the real jolt of dopamine reward is in response to the player achieving the challenge, solution, sequence, etc. needed to progress to the next and more challenging level of the game. When the brain receives that feedback that this progress has been made, it reinforces the networks used to succeed. Through a feedback system, that neuronal circuit becomes stronger and more durable. In other words, memory of the mental or physical response used to achieve the dopamine reward is reinforced.

It may seem counter intuitive to think that children would consider harder work a reward for doing well on a homework problem, test, or physical skill to which they devoted considerable physical or mental energy. Yet, that is just what the video playing brain seeks after experiencing the pleasure of reaching a higher level in the game. A computer game doesn't hand out cash, toys, or even hugs. The motivation to persevere is the brain seeking another surge of dopamine -- the fuel of intrinsic reinforcement.

Individualized Achievable Challenge

Individualized achievable challenge level is one where a task, action, or choice is not so easy as to be essentially automatic or 100% successful. When that is the case the brain is not alert for feedback and there is no activation of the dopamine reward response system. The task must also not be perceived as so difficult that there is no chance of success. It is only when the brain perceives a reasonable possibility of success for achieving a desirable goal that it invests the energy and activates the dopamine reward circuit.

fMRI and cognitive studies reveal that the brain "evaluates" the probability of effort resulting in success before expending the cognitive effort in solving mental problems. If the challenge seems too high, or students have a fixed mindset related past failures that they will not succeed in a subject or topic, the brain is not likely to expend the effort needed to achieve the challenge.

Brain effort is costly because this three-pound organ needs 20% of the body's supply of oxygen and glucose to keep its cells alive. The brain operates to conserve its resources unless the energy cost is low or the expectation of reward is high. In the classroom, that is the ideal level of instructional challenge for student motivation.

When learners have opportunities to participate in learning challenges at their individualized achievable challenge level, their brains invest more effort to the task and are more responsive to feedback. Students working toward clear, desirable goals within their range of perceived achievable challenge, reach levels of engagement much like the focus and perseverance we see when they play their video games.

Feedback or scaffolding may be needed to support students' perception that the challenge is achievable, but the levels of mastery are rarely the same for every student in the class. This is when we need to provide opportunities for differentiating and individualizing. These interventions range from clearly scaled rubrics, to small flexible groups for "as needed" support, or collaborative groups through which students can "enter" from their strengths. Descriptions of these strategies, beyond the scope of this article, are found in differentiated instruction literature.

Game Entry Point is a Perfect Fit Through Pre-assessment and Feedback

The best on-line learning programs for building students' missing foundational knowledge use student responses to structure learning at individualized achievable challenge levels. These programs also provide timely corrective and progress-acknowledging feedback that allows the students to correct mistakes, build understanding progressively, and recognize their incremental progress.

The classroom model can follow suit. Video games with levels of play allow the player to progress quickly through early levels if the gamer already has the skill needed. Gamers reportedly make errors 80% of the time, but the most compelling games give hints, cues, and other feedback so players' brains have enough expectation of dopamine reward to persevere. The games require practice for the specific skills the player needs to master, without the off-putting requirement to repeat tasks already mastered. This type of game keeps the brain engaged because the dopamine surge is perceived to be within reach if effort and practice are sustained.

Good games give players opportunities for experiencing intrinsic reward at frequent intervals, when they apply the effort and practice the specific skills they need to get to the next level. The games do not require mastery of all tasks and the completion of the whole game before giving the brain the feedback for dopamine boosts of satisfaction. The dopamine release comes each time the game provides feedback that the player's actions or responses are correct. The player gains points or tokens for small incremental progress and ultimately the powerful feedback of the success of progressing to the next level. This is when players seek "harder work". To keep the pleasure of intrinsic satisfaction going, the brain needs a higher level of challenge, because staying at a level once mastery is achieved doesn't release the dopamine.

Bringing Incremental Progress Recognition to the Classroom... and Beyond

In the classroom, the video model can be achieved with timely, corrective feedback so students recognize incorrect foundational knowledge and then have opportunities to strengthen the correct new memory circuits through practice and application. However, individualized instruction, assignments, and feedback, that allow students to consistently work at their individualized achievable challenge levels, are time-consuming processes not possible for teachers to consistently provide all students.

What we can do is be aware of the reason the brain is so responsive to video game play and keep achievable challenge and incremental progress feedback in mind when planning units of instruction. One way to help each student sustain motivation and effort is to shift progress recognition to students themselves. This can be done by having students use a variety of methods of recording their own progress toward individualized goals. Through brief conferences, goals can be mutually agreed upon, such as number of pages read a week (with comprehension accountability), progression to the next level of the multiplication tables, or achievement of a higher level on a rubric for writing an essay. Free bar graphs downloaded from the Internet can be filled in by students as they record and see evidence of their incremental goal progress. In contrast to the system of recognition delayed until a final product is completed, graphing reveals the incremental progress evidence throughout the learning process. I've found that for students who have lost confidence to the point of not wanting to risk more failure, it is helpful to start the effort-to-progress record keeping and graphing with something they enjoy, such as shooting foul shots or computer keyboarding speed and accuracy.

Immediate Gratification or Long-term Goal Pursuit?

Compared to an adult brain, a young brain needs more frequent dopamine boosts to sustain effort, persevere through challenges and setbacks, and build the trait of resilience. The brain's prefrontal cortex, with its executive functions (judgment, analysis, delay of immediate gratification, prioritizing, planning, etc.) will be the subject of a future blog. In relation to the video game model, it is important to plan instruction keeping in mind that the executive function circuits are late to mature - well into the twenties. The visible evidence seen on their graphs or rubric progress evidence helps students develop the concept that effort toward a goal brings progress. This, in turn, builds their capacity to resist their young brain's strong drive for immediate gratification. As students use visible models to recognize their incremental goal progress, they build the executive function of goal-directed behavior.

Classroom instruction that provides opportunities for incremental progress feedback at students' achievable challenge levels pays off with increased focus, resilience, and willingness to revise and persevere toward achievement of goals. The development of students' awareness of their potentials to achieve success, through effort and response to feedback, extends far beyond the classroom walls. Your application of the video game model to instruction encourages the habits of mind through which your students can achieve their highest academic, social, and emotional potentials.

Comments (158)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Elissa F.'s picture

I think this article is great. Lots of parents have always had a negative view of video games and this really shows why children like them so much and that they actually can be productive and educational. Kids love video games and I think it would be an excellent idea to have them incororporated into school activities or learning centers!

Andrea's picture

Interesting article! I understand the idea behind this model, but the students would have to be completely engaged in the subject matter to feel the same rush they do from a video game. Children being able to keep track of their own progress and receiving instant feedback is a great idea. This process would keep children engaged in their own learning process and practicing self-regulation. Another idea I found interesting was a way to individualize a child's learning by allowing them to progress quickly through levels they have already mastered. I believe this would keep children from becoming bored, and keep them interested in their own learning. If children were able to keep a record of their progress it would definitely keep them motivated and in charge of their own success.

Elizabeth Gomez's picture

This is a very interesting way of looking at video games. Intrinsic motivation is just as important if not more important than extrinsic motivation. I never thought that a video game would lead to increasing a child's intrinsic motivation, but there are many things in video games that display to the gamer how they are doing. Trying this model in a classroom would be worth a try.

T. Ratliff's picture

This article was very interesting. It is important that educators implement teaching tools that students find enjoyable. Video games are popular amongst most children and learning while playing games can defiantly have its benefits.

T. Ratliff's picture

This article was very interesting. It is important that educators implement teaching tools that students find enjoyable. Video games are popular amongst most children and learning while playing games can defiantly have its benefits.

Melissa's picture

As a gamer myself, I found this article very interesting but really not surprising. I got to experience teaching videos games when I was in early elementary. My school received enough Mac computers to fill two labs and allow teachers to have at least two in their classrooms. We'd have weekly visits to the computer lab where they'd slowly introduce us to learning games; Introductions to drawing and letter games in kindergarten, then typing and math games in first grade, and second through sixth got the same types, but it grew progressively more challenging depending on the grade. The half an hour we'd spend working with these programs didn't feel like learning. Video games like that are great ways to get children involved and can make almost anyone excited to learn.

JP Smith's picture

I do not mind using video games when you are talking about educational purposes and games directly ade for that purpose. However, I do not think that we should just lump all games into the same group and say that all games help teach kids some skill and therefore are ok to play. As with all education tools, they must be age appropriate and there needs to be an expected outcome of skill or learning in order to call a video game educational. In stating my opinion, I am not saying that kids should only be allowed to play games because they have some intentional educational purpose either. Some games are fine to let the kids play and they will indeed learn some skills without having to feel as though it is an educational game.

Christina B's picture

I think that this idea is very interesting. I do agree that there are many video games that are very educational and challenge children in many ways. There are some that are educational but not appropriate in the classroom. There are also those games that are very appropriate to use in the classroom and are very educational, but fun for the students. I think that fun ways of learning are what keep children's attention in learning, so I think that this is a very useful article in showing what video games can do for the children.

Jaimie T.'s picture

I was very surprised by the information in this article! Throughout my childhood it was an understood fact that video games were a negative influence and that we should focus on schoolwork and playing outside with our friends instead. We were basically forbidden to play video games, even at friends houses. Due to the fact that so many children spend hours and hours on video games every week, I found it wonderful to learn that video games can be geared more positively to impact children's development. I had never thought about the points that this article talks about, but it was very interesting. Our world is increasingly embracing technology as an aid in education so I think it is amazing that video games can impact children positively!

Ashley Smith's picture

I thought this article was great. It is nice to see that technology in the form of video games is getting some credit for helping children learn. It was thought for the longest time that video games were a problem and not not as a useful tool in the learning process for kids. Parents and teachers need to be sure that the video games that are being played will have some sort of educational value before allowing them to get lost in it.

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