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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

The popularity of video games is not the enemy of education, but rather a model for best teaching strategies. Games insert players at their achievable challenge level and reward player effort and practice with acknowledgement of incremental goal progress, not just final product. The fuel for this process is the pleasure experience related to the release of dopamine.

Dopamine Motivation

The human brain, much like that of most mammals, has hardwired physiological responses that had survival value at some point in evolutionary progression. The dopamine-reward system is fueled by the brain's recognition of making a successful prediction, choice, or behavioral response.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that, when released in higher than usual amounts, goes beyond the synapse and flows to other regions of the brain producing a powerful pleasure response. This is a deep satisfaction, such as quenching a long thirst. After making a prediction, choice, or action, and receiving feedback that it was correct, the reward from the release of dopamine prompts the brain seek future opportunities to repeat the action. For animal survival, this promotes life or species-sustaining choices and behaviors, such as following a new scent that leads to a mate or a meal and remembering that scent the next time it is present.

No Pain, No Gain

The survival benefit of the dopamine-reward system is building skills and adaptive responses. The system is only activated and available to promote, sustain, or repeat some mental or physical effort when the outcome is not assured. If there is no risk, there is no reward. If there is no challenge, such as adding single digit numbers by a student who has achieved mastery in adding double-digit numbers, there is activation of the dopamine-reward network.

In humans, the dopamine reward response that promotes pleasure and motivation also requires that they are aware that they solved a problem, figured out a puzzle, correctly answered a challenging question, or achieved the sequence of movements needed to play a song on the piano or swing a baseball bat to hit a home run. This is why students need to use what they learn in authentic ways that allow them to recognize their progress as clearly as they see it when playing video games.

Awareness of Incremental Goal Progress

In a sequential, multilevel video game, feedback of progress is often ongoing, such as accumulating points, visual tokens, or celebratory sound effects, but the real jolt of dopamine reward is in response to the player achieving the challenge, solution, sequence, etc. needed to progress to the next and more challenging level of the game. When the brain receives that feedback that this progress has been made, it reinforces the networks used to succeed. Through a feedback system, that neuronal circuit becomes stronger and more durable. In other words, memory of the mental or physical response used to achieve the dopamine reward is reinforced.

It may seem counter intuitive to think that children would consider harder work a reward for doing well on a homework problem, test, or physical skill to which they devoted considerable physical or mental energy. Yet, that is just what the video playing brain seeks after experiencing the pleasure of reaching a higher level in the game. A computer game doesn't hand out cash, toys, or even hugs. The motivation to persevere is the brain seeking another surge of dopamine -- the fuel of intrinsic reinforcement.

Individualized Achievable Challenge

Individualized achievable challenge level is one where a task, action, or choice is not so easy as to be essentially automatic or 100% successful. When that is the case the brain is not alert for feedback and there is no activation of the dopamine reward response system. The task must also not be perceived as so difficult that there is no chance of success. It is only when the brain perceives a reasonable possibility of success for achieving a desirable goal that it invests the energy and activates the dopamine reward circuit.

fMRI and cognitive studies reveal that the brain "evaluates" the probability of effort resulting in success before expending the cognitive effort in solving mental problems. If the challenge seems too high, or students have a fixed mindset related past failures that they will not succeed in a subject or topic, the brain is not likely to expend the effort needed to achieve the challenge.

Brain effort is costly because this three-pound organ needs 20% of the body's supply of oxygen and glucose to keep its cells alive. The brain operates to conserve its resources unless the energy cost is low or the expectation of reward is high. In the classroom, that is the ideal level of instructional challenge for student motivation.

When learners have opportunities to participate in learning challenges at their individualized achievable challenge level, their brains invest more effort to the task and are more responsive to feedback. Students working toward clear, desirable goals within their range of perceived achievable challenge, reach levels of engagement much like the focus and perseverance we see when they play their video games.

Feedback or scaffolding may be needed to support students' perception that the challenge is achievable, but the levels of mastery are rarely the same for every student in the class. This is when we need to provide opportunities for differentiating and individualizing. These interventions range from clearly scaled rubrics, to small flexible groups for "as needed" support, or collaborative groups through which students can "enter" from their strengths. Descriptions of these strategies, beyond the scope of this article, are found in differentiated instruction literature.

Game Entry Point is a Perfect Fit Through Pre-assessment and Feedback

The best on-line learning programs for building students' missing foundational knowledge use student responses to structure learning at individualized achievable challenge levels. These programs also provide timely corrective and progress-acknowledging feedback that allows the students to correct mistakes, build understanding progressively, and recognize their incremental progress.

The classroom model can follow suit. Video games with levels of play allow the player to progress quickly through early levels if the gamer already has the skill needed. Gamers reportedly make errors 80% of the time, but the most compelling games give hints, cues, and other feedback so players' brains have enough expectation of dopamine reward to persevere. The games require practice for the specific skills the player needs to master, without the off-putting requirement to repeat tasks already mastered. This type of game keeps the brain engaged because the dopamine surge is perceived to be within reach if effort and practice are sustained.

Good games give players opportunities for experiencing intrinsic reward at frequent intervals, when they apply the effort and practice the specific skills they need to get to the next level. The games do not require mastery of all tasks and the completion of the whole game before giving the brain the feedback for dopamine boosts of satisfaction. The dopamine release comes each time the game provides feedback that the player's actions or responses are correct. The player gains points or tokens for small incremental progress and ultimately the powerful feedback of the success of progressing to the next level. This is when players seek "harder work". To keep the pleasure of intrinsic satisfaction going, the brain needs a higher level of challenge, because staying at a level once mastery is achieved doesn't release the dopamine.

Bringing Incremental Progress Recognition to the Classroom... and Beyond

In the classroom, the video model can be achieved with timely, corrective feedback so students recognize incorrect foundational knowledge and then have opportunities to strengthen the correct new memory circuits through practice and application. However, individualized instruction, assignments, and feedback, that allow students to consistently work at their individualized achievable challenge levels, are time-consuming processes not possible for teachers to consistently provide all students.

What we can do is be aware of the reason the brain is so responsive to video game play and keep achievable challenge and incremental progress feedback in mind when planning units of instruction. One way to help each student sustain motivation and effort is to shift progress recognition to students themselves. This can be done by having students use a variety of methods of recording their own progress toward individualized goals. Through brief conferences, goals can be mutually agreed upon, such as number of pages read a week (with comprehension accountability), progression to the next level of the multiplication tables, or achievement of a higher level on a rubric for writing an essay. Free bar graphs downloaded from the Internet can be filled in by students as they record and see evidence of their incremental goal progress. In contrast to the system of recognition delayed until a final product is completed, graphing reveals the incremental progress evidence throughout the learning process. I've found that for students who have lost confidence to the point of not wanting to risk more failure, it is helpful to start the effort-to-progress record keeping and graphing with something they enjoy, such as shooting foul shots or computer keyboarding speed and accuracy.

Immediate Gratification or Long-term Goal Pursuit?

Compared to an adult brain, a young brain needs more frequent dopamine boosts to sustain effort, persevere through challenges and setbacks, and build the trait of resilience. The brain's prefrontal cortex, with its executive functions (judgment, analysis, delay of immediate gratification, prioritizing, planning, etc.) will be the subject of a future blog. In relation to the video game model, it is important to plan instruction keeping in mind that the executive function circuits are late to mature - well into the twenties. The visible evidence seen on their graphs or rubric progress evidence helps students develop the concept that effort toward a goal brings progress. This, in turn, builds their capacity to resist their young brain's strong drive for immediate gratification. As students use visible models to recognize their incremental goal progress, they build the executive function of goal-directed behavior.

Classroom instruction that provides opportunities for incremental progress feedback at students' achievable challenge levels pays off with increased focus, resilience, and willingness to revise and persevere toward achievement of goals. The development of students' awareness of their potentials to achieve success, through effort and response to feedback, extends far beyond the classroom walls. Your application of the video game model to instruction encourages the habits of mind through which your students can achieve their highest academic, social, and emotional potentials.

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Kate Nguyen's picture

I love to play video games, and I feel it can be beneficial for children as well, if used correctly. I believe there should be a balance between teaching face to face with students, but I believe technology is extremely helpful for children's learning. Technology is advancing and children are obtaining it at an early age. We can take advantage of that and use technology to help children academically as well as socially if used correctly.

jose.rios's picture

I been a fan of video games for the longest time. I have seen family members benefit from these games. They literally do their homework, then go play these games. So they are spending even more time learning outside of school. Technology is becoming something that can impact education in a positive or negative way. We just have to make sure to use it and guide students in the right path.

karenbautista24's picture

I found this article very interesting. I believe that technology is very important and should be used by kids because there are fun games that help the kids learn while having fun. Technology doesn't always have to be used negatively, if it is used wisely then it can be very helpful and kids can succeed academically.

Nasra's picture

The article made great points. It was very enlightening to see how games are connected with dopamine ,the brain's reward and pleasure. Children are always trying to reach the next level when playing games , which apparently gives them pleasure.The feedbacks and levels are what keep's the player striving to reach the next level. What we can take from this article is just like the games, teachers must constantly give feedback and encouragement to students.

Jacie Langham's picture

I thought that this article was very interesting and it actually makes a lot of sense. My brother was diagnosed with ADHD when he was in elementary school. He always had so much trouble with school, and still does, but he is extremely good at video games. He would have to take his medicine just to get through a day at school, but didn't take his medicine on weekends or during the summer when he would play his games. He could hardly get through one day at school, yet he never struggled or had any trouble concentrating on a video game. I think that this idea would benefit a lot of children, like my brother, who struggle daily in school.

jpc9367's picture

Teachers should implement games into their classroom. Games are a great way to get students involved in learning. By adding in points and competition it gives the students another way to actually want to learn. Being graded can stress kids out, but when you add friendly competition they will be less stressed out about failing a test or assignment. While the students still obtains knowledge he or she will feel less pressured to do the best.

Noel Stephen Moes's picture

As per overall pleasure response, I agree that my involvement in the development, and lives of young children is one of necessary connection. In terms of my active involvement in the lives of young children, I believe education is sabotaged continually by poor leadership in my community's education system. My recommendation is just to quit paying attention to the lying gossip in the staff room that would have me believe that the lives of young children are somehow beyond my effective control - as per necessary growth, and development, who demonstrably educated stupid old me? Teachers just aren't even treated like nurses. They aren't McDonald's managers, either, and, therefore, what we need is a further effective economic model just to raise kids in, period.

Sam Hudgins's picture

I really enjoyed this article because I do consider myself a game designer and I am a adjunct professor at a few local colleges. I agree with using these principles in our everyday teaching and that "small wins" are necessary for growth and development.

I would also add that video games give one on one connection with the player whereas the teacher on many occasions does not. I attempt to sit down with each student I have individually and discuss their needs and concerns and hopes and dreams. This is more of a daunting task on the college level than it seems but I believe is absolutely necessary. The game focuses all its design aspects and teaching principles around just this one person but many teachers focus on a classroom as a whole and I think that is where the unintentional disconnect is.

I am curious as to anyone's thoughts on this in conjunction with teaching with gaming principles.

Noel Stephen Moes's picture

As an educational assistant, I agree with using principles that are positive for our growth and development.

I have duly found video games fun, and I agree that they are positive for growth, and development of all students in the classroom. My experience has been that students need an educational model which they can follow - they will get easily sidetracked by video games which haven't been turned by their teacher into a valuable teaching activity. My simply honest mistake in the past had been allowing students to believe that they will even get my attention by trying to get it with all their knowledge of "sick" video games that have the tendency to get them side-tracked.

I just wish more, and more teachers are further aware of all the capitalistic - and perhaps racist - stuff which their students are into.

Sam Hudgins's picture

I really feel like the best lessons I have ever had is taking that game that they are mentioning and work it into the lesson. For example, if they talk about world of warcraft then why not embrace it and show what all those numbers mean and how they affect your life bar with addition, subtraction, armor reduction for with division and health bonuses with multiplication. Many first person shooters have you buy little things with the points you earn and what is that like with the economy of that world and if you could buy and sell? As an app designer myself and teacher, I find you have to utilize so many subjects from school just to make a basic game and why couldn't we use those same principles to help students learn from their favorite game?

I agree with you Noel and think that we should adapt our lesson plans to them instead of many teachers I know that make the student adapt to their teaching style. If the student doesn't adapt they fail. Not the best learning environment.

Rafael Ibarra's picture

I think this article gives some good points on adapting the video game model to teaching. Teachers can increase a child's mind with positive feedback and proper scaffolding. Similar to the video game feedback, the teacher should give constant feedback to the students in their classroom. In doing so, the student can identify their own cognitive level. Dr. Willis mentioned that proper scaffolding could benefit the student's progress. I agree that integrating collaborative groups in the classroom can help them achieve a different level of thinking. When the student collaborates with another, they can get a different perspective on the assignment at hand. I do agree that, "effort towards a goal brings progress", because setting goals for students is a great motivator. It challenges the students to try their best to meet their individual goals.

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