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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

The popularity of video games is not the enemy of education, but rather a model for best teaching strategies. Games insert players at their achievable challenge level and reward player effort and practice with acknowledgement of incremental goal progress, not just final product. The fuel for this process is the pleasure experience related to the release of dopamine.

Dopamine Motivation

The human brain, much like that of most mammals, has hardwired physiological responses that had survival value at some point in evolutionary progression. The dopamine-reward system is fueled by the brain's recognition of making a successful prediction, choice, or behavioral response.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that, when released in higher than usual amounts, goes beyond the synapse and flows to other regions of the brain producing a powerful pleasure response. This is a deep satisfaction, such as quenching a long thirst. After making a prediction, choice, or action, and receiving feedback that it was correct, the reward from the release of dopamine prompts the brain seek future opportunities to repeat the action. For animal survival, this promotes life or species-sustaining choices and behaviors, such as following a new scent that leads to a mate or a meal and remembering that scent the next time it is present.

No Pain, No Gain

The survival benefit of the dopamine-reward system is building skills and adaptive responses. The system is only activated and available to promote, sustain, or repeat some mental or physical effort when the outcome is not assured. If there is no risk, there is no reward. If there is no challenge, such as adding single digit numbers by a student who has achieved mastery in adding double-digit numbers, there is activation of the dopamine-reward network.

In humans, the dopamine reward response that promotes pleasure and motivation also requires that they are aware that they solved a problem, figured out a puzzle, correctly answered a challenging question, or achieved the sequence of movements needed to play a song on the piano or swing a baseball bat to hit a home run. This is why students need to use what they learn in authentic ways that allow them to recognize their progress as clearly as they see it when playing video games.

Awareness of Incremental Goal Progress

In a sequential, multilevel video game, feedback of progress is often ongoing, such as accumulating points, visual tokens, or celebratory sound effects, but the real jolt of dopamine reward is in response to the player achieving the challenge, solution, sequence, etc. needed to progress to the next and more challenging level of the game. When the brain receives that feedback that this progress has been made, it reinforces the networks used to succeed. Through a feedback system, that neuronal circuit becomes stronger and more durable. In other words, memory of the mental or physical response used to achieve the dopamine reward is reinforced.

It may seem counter intuitive to think that children would consider harder work a reward for doing well on a homework problem, test, or physical skill to which they devoted considerable physical or mental energy. Yet, that is just what the video playing brain seeks after experiencing the pleasure of reaching a higher level in the game. A computer game doesn't hand out cash, toys, or even hugs. The motivation to persevere is the brain seeking another surge of dopamine -- the fuel of intrinsic reinforcement.

Individualized Achievable Challenge

Individualized achievable challenge level is one where a task, action, or choice is not so easy as to be essentially automatic or 100% successful. When that is the case the brain is not alert for feedback and there is no activation of the dopamine reward response system. The task must also not be perceived as so difficult that there is no chance of success. It is only when the brain perceives a reasonable possibility of success for achieving a desirable goal that it invests the energy and activates the dopamine reward circuit.

fMRI and cognitive studies reveal that the brain "evaluates" the probability of effort resulting in success before expending the cognitive effort in solving mental problems. If the challenge seems too high, or students have a fixed mindset related past failures that they will not succeed in a subject or topic, the brain is not likely to expend the effort needed to achieve the challenge.

Brain effort is costly because this three-pound organ needs 20% of the body's supply of oxygen and glucose to keep its cells alive. The brain operates to conserve its resources unless the energy cost is low or the expectation of reward is high. In the classroom, that is the ideal level of instructional challenge for student motivation.

When learners have opportunities to participate in learning challenges at their individualized achievable challenge level, their brains invest more effort to the task and are more responsive to feedback. Students working toward clear, desirable goals within their range of perceived achievable challenge, reach levels of engagement much like the focus and perseverance we see when they play their video games.

Feedback or scaffolding may be needed to support students' perception that the challenge is achievable, but the levels of mastery are rarely the same for every student in the class. This is when we need to provide opportunities for differentiating and individualizing. These interventions range from clearly scaled rubrics, to small flexible groups for "as needed" support, or collaborative groups through which students can "enter" from their strengths. Descriptions of these strategies, beyond the scope of this article, are found in differentiated instruction literature.

Game Entry Point is a Perfect Fit Through Pre-assessment and Feedback

The best on-line learning programs for building students' missing foundational knowledge use student responses to structure learning at individualized achievable challenge levels. These programs also provide timely corrective and progress-acknowledging feedback that allows the students to correct mistakes, build understanding progressively, and recognize their incremental progress.

The classroom model can follow suit. Video games with levels of play allow the player to progress quickly through early levels if the gamer already has the skill needed. Gamers reportedly make errors 80% of the time, but the most compelling games give hints, cues, and other feedback so players' brains have enough expectation of dopamine reward to persevere. The games require practice for the specific skills the player needs to master, without the off-putting requirement to repeat tasks already mastered. This type of game keeps the brain engaged because the dopamine surge is perceived to be within reach if effort and practice are sustained.

Good games give players opportunities for experiencing intrinsic reward at frequent intervals, when they apply the effort and practice the specific skills they need to get to the next level. The games do not require mastery of all tasks and the completion of the whole game before giving the brain the feedback for dopamine boosts of satisfaction. The dopamine release comes each time the game provides feedback that the player's actions or responses are correct. The player gains points or tokens for small incremental progress and ultimately the powerful feedback of the success of progressing to the next level. This is when players seek "harder work". To keep the pleasure of intrinsic satisfaction going, the brain needs a higher level of challenge, because staying at a level once mastery is achieved doesn't release the dopamine.

Bringing Incremental Progress Recognition to the Classroom... and Beyond

In the classroom, the video model can be achieved with timely, corrective feedback so students recognize incorrect foundational knowledge and then have opportunities to strengthen the correct new memory circuits through practice and application. However, individualized instruction, assignments, and feedback, that allow students to consistently work at their individualized achievable challenge levels, are time-consuming processes not possible for teachers to consistently provide all students.

What we can do is be aware of the reason the brain is so responsive to video game play and keep achievable challenge and incremental progress feedback in mind when planning units of instruction. One way to help each student sustain motivation and effort is to shift progress recognition to students themselves. This can be done by having students use a variety of methods of recording their own progress toward individualized goals. Through brief conferences, goals can be mutually agreed upon, such as number of pages read a week (with comprehension accountability), progression to the next level of the multiplication tables, or achievement of a higher level on a rubric for writing an essay. Free bar graphs downloaded from the Internet can be filled in by students as they record and see evidence of their incremental goal progress. In contrast to the system of recognition delayed until a final product is completed, graphing reveals the incremental progress evidence throughout the learning process. I've found that for students who have lost confidence to the point of not wanting to risk more failure, it is helpful to start the effort-to-progress record keeping and graphing with something they enjoy, such as shooting foul shots or computer keyboarding speed and accuracy.

Immediate Gratification or Long-term Goal Pursuit?

Compared to an adult brain, a young brain needs more frequent dopamine boosts to sustain effort, persevere through challenges and setbacks, and build the trait of resilience. The brain's prefrontal cortex, with its executive functions (judgment, analysis, delay of immediate gratification, prioritizing, planning, etc.) will be the subject of a future blog. In relation to the video game model, it is important to plan instruction keeping in mind that the executive function circuits are late to mature - well into the twenties. The visible evidence seen on their graphs or rubric progress evidence helps students develop the concept that effort toward a goal brings progress. This, in turn, builds their capacity to resist their young brain's strong drive for immediate gratification. As students use visible models to recognize their incremental goal progress, they build the executive function of goal-directed behavior.

Classroom instruction that provides opportunities for incremental progress feedback at students' achievable challenge levels pays off with increased focus, resilience, and willingness to revise and persevere toward achievement of goals. The development of students' awareness of their potentials to achieve success, through effort and response to feedback, extends far beyond the classroom walls. Your application of the video game model to instruction encourages the habits of mind through which your students can achieve their highest academic, social, and emotional potentials.

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Heather R-C's picture

I totally agree with your article. I feel that especially that children being raised in this day and age need this type of stimulation as they are being raised in an era of video games, electronics, etc. In the school in which my son attends, the students work daily on computer programs that are set to their each individual level in order for them to gain mastery, and achieve at their own pace. Many times I hear of what he did on the computer that day versus what lesson(s) the teacher covered or what they did in class. I feel that there are many benefits to educational games especially used in the classroom. As a future educator I am excited to see where this will lead our students as we move forward in the 21st century.

cely76's picture
cely76
teachingstudent

I totally agree with your model. I believe that the right video games are very helpful for children to strengthen a variety of skills. My children are very young, but video games have strengthened their recognition of number and letters as well as small words. All video games should not be pigeon-holed into a time wasting category. It was a very interesting read!

Amanda Jones's picture

I completely agree that children tend to weigh the rewards versus the amount of effort that is going to be given to the task. The fact that video games have achievable goals that give rewards once they have been achieved can be addictive. I'm an adult, and I still have this desire. I feel that we need to harness this desire in the classroom with activities other than video games, as the article outlines. I have found, through my work at day care centers, that effort-based rewards systems are an excellent motivational tool. Great article.

Laura Talavera's picture

I agree that model games could be a great way for students to learn but should have a limit as well. For many students technology is very important and they are fascinated by it. And I believe teachers could use this technique to help them understand or achieve success on a subject. Teachers could find a way to implement it into the lesson but not make it the complete lesson. I also do not believe that they should use it everyday but moderate the usage of technology. I do plan on using technology in my classroom maybe as a center or to enhance a lesson.

Karen Lambert's picture

I think this blog makes some really interesting points. I agree that children need to be encouraged when learning and want to see progress in what they have learned just like in a video game. It is really a good thing when a student has a growth-mind set rather than a fixed-mind set; this will help students understand that there is always something to learn and be able to do if you put your mind to it. This model is really good in motivating kids and helping them understand that it's alright to make mistakes and that there is always room to grow and achieve your goals. This blog has a really great view on learning and understanding what children need so they can blossom into really exceptional learners.

Student's picture
Student
Student

This Blog has really open my eyes about video games. i always thought they were just a waist of time and bad for a child. i also had not realized the importance of rewarding a child. this article seriously helped me with future planning and teaching strategies for my students in the near future!!! Very Cool!!

Student's picture
Student
Student

This Blog has really open my eyes about video games. i always thought they were just a waist of time and bad for a child. i also had not realized the importance of rewarding a child. this article seriously helped me with future planning and teaching strategies for my students in the near future!!! We have to encourage children to learn and work for their rewards just like they do in there video games. i totally agree with your quote"If there is no risk, there is no reward," because thats the only way to learn by taking risks and learning because if you do that then the reward always follows. Very Cool and interesting Blog!!

Judy Willis MD's picture
Judy Willis MD
Neurologist/Teacher/Grad School Ed faculty/Author
Blogger

During the past week there have been over 20 responses to this edutopia blog that I wrote in April of 2011. It is my deduction that these represent part of a powerful interactive assignment for the teacher education students at the University of Texas at Arlington College (UTA).
Your thoughtful responses reflect the understanding you are developing about the potential of neuroscience research to guide educational interventions. I am so pleased to see evidence of this instructional focus at UTA that I wrote a lengthy response to your blogs, including some pullouts from them. It is too long to be posted here as a regular blog author response so am working with my editors at Edutopia to format it for publication next week.
Until then, congratulations to those of you who participated and kudos to the professor(s) who designed this relevant assignment that models a great strategy for your own future students.

Joyce M's picture

This article is very informative. It is nice to know video games are stimulating to the mind. I always viewed video games as a negative influence. Reading this article makes me realize the importance of providing children with rewards for their accomplishment. After reading this blog, as a teacher I will have a video game mentality while in the classroom. I have a new perception about video games.

Judy Willis MD's picture
Judy Willis MD
Neurologist/Teacher/Grad School Ed faculty/Author
Blogger

See my response to UTA Blog Comments posted Dec 23

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