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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation
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Homework, Sleep, and the Student Brain

Glenn Whitman

Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning

At some point, every parent wishes their high school aged student would go to bed earlier as well as find time to pursue their own passions -- or maybe even choose to relax. This thought reemerged as I reread Anna Quindlen's commencement speech, A Short Guide to a Happy Life. The central message of this address, never actually stated, was: "Get a life."

But what prevents students from "getting a life," especially between September and June? One answer is homework.

Favorable Working Conditions

As a history teacher at St. Andrew's Episcopal School and director of the Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning, I want to be clear that I both give and support the idea of homework. But homework, whether good or bad, takes time and often cuts into each student's sleep, family dinner, or freedom to follow passions outside of school. For too many students, homework is too often about compliance and "not losing points" rather than about learning.

Most schools have a philosophy about homework that is challenged by each parent's experience doing homework "back in the day." Parents' common misconception is that the teachers and schools giving more homework are more challenging and therefore better teachers and schools. This is a false assumption. The amount of homework your son or daughter does each night should not be a source of pride for the quality of a school. In fact, I would suggest a different metric when evaluating your child's homework. Are you able to stay up with your son or daughter until he or she finishes those assignments? If the answer is no, then too much homework is being assigned, and you both need more of the sleep that, according to Daniel T. Willingham, is crucial to memory consolidation.

I have often joked with my students, while teaching the Progressive Movement and rise of unions between the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, that they should consider striking because of how schools violate child labor laws. If school is each student's "job," then students are working hours usually assigned to Washington, DC lawyers (combing the hours of the school day, school-sponsored activities, and homework). This would certainly be a risky strategy for changing how schools and teachers think about homework, but it certainly would gain attention. (If any of my students are reading this, don't try it!)

So how can we change things?

The Scientific Approach

In the study "What Great Homework Looks Like" from the journal Think Differently and Deeply, which connects research in how the brain learns to the instructional practice of teachers, we see moderate advantages of no more than two hours of homework for high school students. For younger students, the correlation is even smaller. Homework does teach other important, non-cognitive skills such as time management, sustained attention, and rule following, but let us not mask that as learning the content and skills that most assignments are supposed to teach.

Homework can be a powerful learning tool -- if designed and assigned correctly. I say "learning," because good homework should be an independent moment for each student or groups of students through virtual collaboration. It should be challenging and engaging enough to allow for deliberate practice of essential content and skills, but not so hard that parents are asked to recall what they learned in high school. All that usually leads to is family stress.

But even when good homework is assigned, it is the student's approach that is critical. A scientific approach to tackling their homework can actually lead to deepened learning in less time. The biggest contributor to the length of a student's homework is task switching. Too often, students jump between their work on an assignment and the lure of social media. But I have found it hard to convince students of the cost associated with such task switching. Imagine a student writing an essay for AP English class or completing math proofs for their honors geometry class. In the middle of the work, their phone announces a new text message. This is a moment of truth for the student. Should they address that text before or after they finish their assignment?

Delayed Gratification

When a student chooses to check their text, respond and then possibly take an extended dive into social media, they lose a percentage of the learning that has already happened. As a result, when they return to the AP essay or honors geometry proof, they need to retrace their learning in order to catch up to where they were. This jump, between homework and social media, is actually extending the time a student spends on an assignment. My colleagues and I coach our students to see social media as a reward for finishing an assignment. Delaying gratification is an important non-cognitive skill and one that research has shown enhances life outcomes (see the Stanford Marshmallow Test).

At my school, the goal is to reduce the barriers for each student to meet his or her peak potential without lowering the bar. Good, purposeful homework should be part of any student's learning journey. But it takes teachers to design better homework (which can include no homework at all on some nights), parents to not see hours of homework as a measure of school quality, and students to reflect on their current homework strategies while applying new, research-backed ones. Together, we can all get more sleep -- and that, research shows, is very good for all of our brains and for each student's learning.

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Glenn Whitman's picture
Glenn Whitman
Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning
Blogger

Larry:
I cannot agree with you more that teachers need to coordinate more. I would also think including parents in a homework conversation with teachers would be enlightening for all involved. I have been playing with something I am calling "Two Question Homework" as the only assignment I give. The two questions are: "What did I learn in class today?" and "Why do I need to know it?" It creates a meta-cognitive moment for students and holds me accountable for what I teach. Have a great summer!

Glenn Whitman's picture
Glenn Whitman
Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning
Blogger

Tom:
Great post. I find one of the ironies when talking with parents about homework is that they want less but when less is given they think that learning is not going on. Quality teaching and learning cannot be determined by the quantity of homework. I would love to take your class on digital animation. I bet your students think about the course and their projects even after the school day is over. Enjoy your summer.

Glenn Whitman's picture
Glenn Whitman
Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning
Blogger

Varvara:
Thanks for your "long distance" post. I was sorry to hear that the homework problem/challenge is an international issue. How long are your class periods in Greece so that you are able to complete some assignments before the end of the period?

Glenn Whitman's picture
Glenn Whitman
Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning
Blogger

Phil:
I am glad you found the blog post "fascinating". I do not think there is a teacher who does not wish for each of their students to be happy. I don't think school should be like bad medicine that you take in order to be "happy" or healthy later in life. We are actually doing some research with faculty at Harvard's Graduate School of Education on how happiness shapes student motivation and academic achievement. I hope to share the results at a later date. Enjoy the summer.

Glenn Whitman's picture
Glenn Whitman
Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning
Blogger

Curt:
Fun and learning . . . a great combination that certainly engages your students. You obviously have a thoughtful group of teachers and school leaders. Have you ever asked the students about their reactions to such "fun"assignments versus what might be considered more "traditional" homework?

Glenn Whitman's picture
Glenn Whitman
Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning
Blogger

Maddie:
Sorry about the delayed reply. The key, in my mind, to projects that are spread out over time, or even creative, is that students should be getting constant feedback while doing their own self-reflection throughout the process. There is a lot of great research about the importance of meta-cognition for developing a growth mindset among students. Teaching students how to manage their time and spread their work out is a life-long skill. So yes, I think a project might enhance engagement but it needs to be done by the student because too many projects are hijacked by parents. One thing some of my colleagues do with extended projects being done at home is to have students take frequent photos of their progress and share it with their classmates and teachers through our LMS. Enjoy the summer.

MButler553's picture

Larry,
Love your opportunities for students to reflect on what they have learned during the day, especially the "why" they have to know it!! I'm going to use that idea for my class blog. Thank you!

HelicopterMommy's picture

I don't think anyone is interested in busy work or homework that requires our children enduring sleepless nights all school year. I can only speak for myself when I say I am interested in mastery and comprehension of material. The question should never be how much homework but the quality of it. If we're assigning homework for a History class it may mean visiting a museum. Homework for another course may mean worksheets to be turned in daily or weekly. Teachers and campuses need to assign homework based on what is best for that specific course and what will help students retain lessons. Maybe the author is tearing down straw-men? Are there really parents on his campus demanding homework just because?

Teach our children is all we ask. Private, Charter, and Public school teachers. In lieu of traditional "homework" American educators should look to projects that will show our children real life applications for what they are learning. Send children to spelling bees and national science fairs.

Glenn Whitman's picture
Glenn Whitman
Director, The Center for Transformative Teaching and Learning
Blogger

Candle:
Thanks for your thoughtful comment and I wish my child went to your child's school. It is courageous school leaders and teachers that are thinking differently about homework. Regarding your question about the "scientific approach," I work with our students to make them more mindful of how research in how the brain learns can allow them to be more efficient with their homework. So we coach and run action research projects with students about the impact task switching has on the time they have to dedicate to homework. We talk about the importance of rewarding themselves for their efforts, maybe even with marshmallows. More importantly, we have on-going conversations with teachers about what is good homework, emphasizing the importance of having students reflect at the end of the day on what they learned and what they still don't understand. In short, the growing body of research about how the brain learns should not be targeted to teachers but also should be getting into the hands and heads of each students so that they can meet their peak potential while having more time to pursue their passions and sleep. Good luck in your work and enjoy the summer.

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