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Origin of the Inverted Classroom

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Excellent article. I wanted to provide some background, as it also has insights into best practices for the flipped classroom. I have been using the inverted classroom for 13 years. I wanted to make sure that you were aware of the origin and citation of the term "inverted classroom" and where it first began. There have been a number of folks taking credit for the concept. My colleagues and I authored an article in the Journal of Economic Education in 2000 titled "Inverting the Classroom" that is both the first time that term had been used and also outlines the model for what later has been called the flipped classroom.

A PDF of the article can be found here: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/249331/Inverted_Classroom_Paper.pdf
Or you can read this blog post about it here: http://interacc.typepad.com/synthesis/2009/09/inversions.html

We have since lectured and led workshop on this for years. It has gained quite a bit of attention since Khan Academy has advanced the model, but it was first articulated in 2000.

Science Teacher

This is the first I've heard

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This is the first I've heard of a Flipped Classroom. I am interested. It seems to me like a Flipped Classroom could work for an honors science class. I do agree with you that the videos must not be any longer than a lecture would be. In the video I could do short demos or experiments to make it interesting and to show examples of the content being delivered. Then the next day the students could do hands on experiments that enforce the content. They could work together and I could help them with concepts they do not understand. I do not see a Flipped Classroom working with co-taught or merit classes.

Seventh grade humanities teacher, working in Tunis, Tunisia

Incremental Shifts

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The goal for me is to increase student ownership of their understanding. Students have to meet any type of instructional delivery with an intent to understand. When they realize they don't, they then have to access strategies that help them get there and that might be listening to something I have recorded or getting instruction from a different voice or presentation from me.
I don't want to overlook the value of other students as part of the flip. I use a lot of "turn and talk" and have students break into groups to work through some learning. This is another way that I can get off of the stage and put the responsibility on them to verbalize their understanding with each other. I get so much formative information from listening in on the various conversations and then I can refocus the class and acknowledge excellent thinking I witnessed and also correct misinformation or procedure.
It's back to that gradual release of control we always practice with students.

Highschool teacher in the province of Quebec (french)

To flip or not to flip...

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Hi!
(sorry for the mistakes i'll make in writing, I'm french (Canadian))

For me, the keyword is differentiation...NOT TRUE that you will get all your students to listen to your vids...

NOT TRUE that you will cure eveybody and everything...

The flipped classroom should be a TOOL among others...

Merci! :))

High School English teacher, private school in Michigan

Marshall has good points. I

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Marshall has good points. I also wonder whether this will lead to a homogenization of education. Is that a problem? If say, "Tom Smith" posts good lessons will teachers need to create their own material or just use what already exists. And will we leave behind students without resources? Many of my students are hard pressed for time as it is because of sports and jobs. How will they find time to view, or the motivation to view lessons presented on line on "their time." Perhaps one class being "flipped" might work, but are there any results available for multiple classes being flipped?

Seventh Grade science teacher from Orinda, California

I also question the motivation behind the 'flipped classroom'

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Just attended a lecture by Diane Ravitch, where she outlined the many ways that public schools are being undermined. This seems like a clever way to marginalize teachers - buy the pre-recorded lectures off of some organization and use teachers as homework tutors.

Seventh Grade science teacher from Orinda, California

But what about personalized story telling in person?

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Some of the best magic is when I'll key of a question a student has, or a situation I know they were in recently as a way to tell a story illustrating the concept we are studying. We gather around and there is a sense of community. This couldn't be captured in a recorded lecture or demo in a science class. I'm sort of shocked that this would seem like a good idea as the main model of instruction. I do agree that too much direct instruction/lecture is bad. Of course. And that making time to coach students is a good thing. But for heaven's sake, let's not throw the baby out with the bath water.

K-5 Technology integration Specialist

Classroom, flipped or not- just one of many

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tools available to us. The key is finding the right fit, scaffolding the kids up to success. Teachers need to be willing to change what has to change. Reach the students by any means necessary. www.mypaperlessclassroom.org

President at Smart Science Education Inc.

"I mean, it is still a lecture."

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Let's be really clear about the fact that you're using incredible powerful technology to deliver a lecture. Yes, it may be a first step. It's a rather small first step in terms of pedagogy but large, as Andrew Miller says, in terms of teacher effort. I'm interested in where it will lead.

What if we could have much, much more than a recorded lecture for the out-of-class work? For example, what about a "flipped" science lab where students do real experiments online with interactive data collection. Now, students are engaged in interactive work on a computer. Reflection is built in if you have an online lab report and decent post-lab (summative) questions. You can improve the experience more by having pre-lab questions that expose mistaken ideas and check on knowledge that should be known before starting -- or at least jogging memories. You can provide narrated videos of the procedure leading up to the measurements. You might also add a hyper-linked glossary of words for the specific lab and more support and background information.

In class the next day, a discussion moderated by the teacher allows students to talk about what they discovered and about the experimental errors they ran into with "prerecorded real experiments." Now, that's good use of class time, much better than doing the same old cookbook labs, verification labs, and procedural practice labs.

Instructional Technology Educator

Balancing Technology Integration with Crucial Teaching Practices

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Great Points Andrew! One of the biggest challenges we face in education is having enough fiscal resources to accommodate the need and desire for technology integration. The flipped model of teaching assumes that schools will have the resources and students will have adequate background knowledge to make this a successful approach. We need to teach our students that technology is not the main vessel for educational excellence, but a tool we can utilize to enhance our understanding of skills and processes.

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