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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation
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The Right Way to Ask Questions in the Classroom

Ben Johnson

Administrator, author and educator

Updated 10/2013

Have you ever thought about how silly we teachers can be? When we get in front of students, we present ourselves to be the ones with all the answers, and then after we talk to the students, we start asking questions as if we don't know anything we just talked about. No wonder students get confused!

The Goal of a Question

On a more serious note, as teachers, we need to come to grips with the fact that we really do not know everything, and there is no reason to assume that the students know nothing. But perhaps the most important question to ask is, "What does a teacher asking questions of a class expect the class to learn from the questioning process?"

There are a number of things to consider in this scenario. Some teachers might answer that the reason to ask questions is to check for understanding, which benefits the teacher more than the student. Ostensibly, after we have taught a principle or concept, we could ask, "Does everybody understand?" Even though we all realize that students not answering -- or even answering in the affirmative -- may not really understand, we still ask it. Are we aware of how many times we ask this useless question during a day of teaching?

What we really end up telling the students when we ask this sort of question is, "Ok, here is your last chance. If you don't ask any questions, then you understand completely, and I am free to go on to the next subject. Because I asked this fair question, and gave you a fair chance to answer, I am absolved from any lack of understanding on your part."

The fallacy with this thinking is that sometimes the students do not understand that they do not understand, and if they do not know what they do not know, there is no way that they can ask a question about it.

The other element about this question is that it is a yes-or-no question, and we all know it's all too easy to guess what answer the teacher wants to hear, and does not push the students into the higher-order-thinking stratosphere.

How do we then go about appropriately checking for understanding?

We ask specific questions! Great, you may be saying, but how do we do that?

Typically, these are the questions that are thrown out to the class as if they were tantalizing treats to be snatched up by all of the eager students. The reality is far different.

Classroom Observations

If we look at the dynamics of any classroom, it doesn't take more than a week for students to figure out who is smart, who is not, and who doesn't care. What is worse, studies show that after fourth grade, students know how they are perceived and play their roles accordingly. So, here comes one of those hook-laden questions bobbing about the classroom: "Class, if you could stretch string from here to the moon, how many balls of string would it take?"

The students who know they are not smart are not going to take the bait, and neither will the students who do not care. This leaves the smart kids as the only ones interested in answering, and almost before the question is finished, they have their hands up with an answer, right or wrong. The other two groups of kids are perfectly fine with this routine. Most likely, they will complacently say to themselves, "Let them answer the questions so I don't have to."

A teacher may defend this practice because the motivated student who answers will help the whole class to learn the answer. That might be true if the whole class were listening, but, when the teacher starts pacing the room and stops to ask a question, if the students know that the question will be open to the entire class, then most likely two-thirds of the class will not even pay it any attention and continue doodling or daydreaming.

I spent the day as a first grader, a third grader, a fifth grader, a sixth grader, and a ninth grader. I followed these students to all their classes. One astounding thing that I discovered is that some students went through a whole day -- maybe even weeks and months -- and never answered a single verbal question!

Once again, I ask, do we realize how many general questions we throw to the air in the course of a class period? We would be astounded at the results if we simply assigned a student to tally how many of these questions we actually ask each class period. Old habits are hard to break, but the students would love to help you break this one.

Let's say we notice this problem and decide something has to change. "Jeffry, What do John the Baptist and Kermit the Frog have in common?" Several hands slowly recede and all eyes are on Jeffry. Well, some eyes are on Jeffry. The rest of the students just breathed sighs of relief that their names were not called. The question asked is not their problem, and neither is the answer.

Some teachers may say that while Jeffry is thinking of the answer, the rest of the students are, too. Wouldn't that be nice? Once again, maybe one-third of the students are thinking about an answer, but the rest are just glad it wasn't them.

So, how do teachers ask a question the right way?

A Simple, Effective Approach

Most of us have been exposed to the questioning strategies researched by Mary Budd Rowe. She proposed that teachers simply ask a question, such as "What do you call it when an insect kills itself?" pause for at least three seconds, and then say a student's name: "Sally." By doing this, all the students will automatically be thinking about an answer and only after another child's name is said will they sigh in relief because they were not chosen.

Creative teachers accompany this technique with a system to make sure that every child gets to answer questions in a random fashion. If it is not random, then once they answer a question, they think they have answered their one question and are done for the day. I did some online research on questioning and found these questioning and discussion resources from UMDMJ useful.

So, if we are not planning to use total physical response (TPR) to have all the students answer questions at the same time, then at least we should be asking a question, pausing for three seconds and then saying a student's name in order to get the most effect out of questions. However, if we are satisfied with only some students paying attention and learning in our classrooms, then we can continue as usual.

Any questions?

What innovative strategies do you use to make sure every student gets a chance to ask and answer questions?

Ben Johnson

Administrator, author and educator
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Comments (155)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Pete 's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

It is nice if you have clickers, but I had to go old school. You can get similar responses with wipe-off white boards. They are about $5 each new, but try the dollar stores. Or you can buy a sheet of white panel at Home Depot, and cut it into 1 foot squares. (sand the edges) then get dry markers from the school and use tissues for wipes. Ask a question, everyone has between 15 seconds and 2 minutes, depending on the question to finish. Everyone holds theirs up at once for me to see. If a board is blank or doesn't come up, then I ask more. No one else can see the answers unless they turn around. It is a low threat, low cost way to involve everyone.

Rusha Sams's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I agree that Wait Time is extremely important, and I'm talking about the pause right after you ask the question prior to calling on a student. But Wait Time II is also important -- the pause that comes after a student answers. By allowing a student just a little more time before you hastily say "Good job" and move quickly on to another student, you can create an atmosphere that rewards more clarity, more completion of thought, and maybe even a little humor or a personal story.

Kent Travis's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Great angle or addition to the questioning method. I'll apply this tomorrow.

robin's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

When a student responds with "I don't know" I respond back, "But if you did know, what would you say?" Amazing how many students come up with a response!

Mary Huffcutt's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

I use the "hmmmm" approach. When I say "hmmm" and put my finger to my lips and tap them while looking up, that is the cue for the students. They then know they need to ask them selves what the content was, what do they know about the content, what questions can be generated from the content (many will do this tapping their lips as well) and then generate a little list of their own questions.
I let them ask the questions and let them call on others for the answers -- often this generates discussion because I will generate more questions from their questions.
There is prep time with this method -- I need to teach a critical thinking unit.

Ben Johnson (author)'s picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Mary:

Your Hmmm... approach is actually your way of modeling a thought process that you use to start the gears rolling in your head. Students need to learn how to think sometimes, because they get into sloppy mental habits-- eg...waiting for the teacher to tell them what to think. When you say Hmmm... it triggers a response in the students because, as you said, you have trained them to start thinking critically at that point. This "Metacognition" modeling is especially effective when you, as the teacher, verbalize the process-- "I wonder what would happen if I changed this?" "Why am I thinking this is a better solution?... I know... Because these factors point to a higher probability of success." etc...

Thanks for sharing.

Ben Johnson
San Antonio, TX

Tina Simons, NBCT's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Ben,
I do believe only one... but I must confess that I'm not sure as to why.
It's been rolling around up in my brain... the kitten chasing it has finally given up and is curled up taking a nap, so I must see if I'm correct.
One HUG-MUN-OUS ball of string (as everyone else rolls their grown-up eyes and we continue to play...)
Tina Simons

TAY SING LEONG's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

While student were called upon to answer to a question decided to find some simple way out by replying " I don't know". My practise is that it should be reinforce by getting him/her to echo back the acceptable responses by other student. This will allow him/her to think and listen attentively to others and "add on" with their ideas as they contribute in repeating what was made known.
Regards
TSL

Kathleen Pierattoni's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

Deborah's insight reminded me of my first years of teaching. At that time we had "Math Matters" coaches and received math training in this method. I have consistently used the Math Matters approach to questions and answers. One strategy was to call on a student to choose another student to answer the question. A second strategy was echoing; call on a student to repeat an answer given.Another way was to have students share their answer with a partner before raising a quiet hand.I found this method very effective.

Kate

Tom Barner's picture
Anonymous (not verified)

The idea of using "Wait Time" was first suggested by Mary Budd Rowe in her research in 1972. She said that using wait time after having asked a question will allow girls to process their answers. She also said that boys will raise their hands first even though they may not have the correct answer. I don't think this was something that started at Smallville. Read her research to find out more about the value of waiting a bit after asking questions.

Tom Barner
F.A. Day Middle School
Newton, MA

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