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WHAT WORKS IN EDUCATION The George Lucas Educational Foundation

Shaping Tech for the Classroom

21st-century schools need 21st-century technology.
By Marc Prensky
Credit: Bill Duke

The biggest question about technology and schools in the 21st century is not so much "What can it do?" but, rather, "When will it get to do it?" We all know life will be much different by 2100. Will school? How close will we be to Edutopia?

First, it helps to look at the typical process of technology adoption (keeping in mind, of course, that schools are not typical of anything.) It's typically a four-step process:

  • Dabbling.
  • Doing old things in old ways.
  • Doing old things in new ways.
  • Doing new things in new ways.

Until recently, we have mostly been dabbling with technology in our schools: A few Apples here. A PC there. Random creation of software by teachers and other individuals -- some very good, much bad. A few edutainment disks. Dabbling.

Old Things in Old Ways

When a new technology appears, our first instinct is always to continue doing things within the technology the way we've always done it. People still illuminated the first printed Gutenberg Bibles by hand. Television pioneers set up single cameras in "great" theater seats. The result was pretty much like what came before; some elements may have been lost, but the results were certainly cheaper, and far more efficient.

That is almost exclusively what we now do with educational technology. We use it mostly to pass documents around, but now in electronic form, and the result is not very different from what we have always known.

People certainly are putting courses, curricula, and lesson plans online. This trend is important, but it's hardly new -- it will be new only when those courses, curricula, and lesson plans are very different and technology influenced, when they are set up so they can be found and mixed and matched easily, when they are continually iterated and updated, and when the kids have a big say in their creation. Certainly, systems for maintaining records and assessment online, such as PowerSchool, a Web-based student-information system from Apple (and similar products from Pearson School Systems and Chancery Software), have emerged, but the records and assessments we ask for and keep, for the most part, haven't changed.

I would even include writing, creating, submitting, and sharing work digitally on the computer via email or instant messaging in the category of doing old things (communicating and exchanging) in old ways (passing stuff around). Is there educational progress, though? It appears that students who write on a computer turn in longer and higher-quality assignments than those who compose by hand, even though it's still writing. A middle school principal in Maine (where all middle school students are supplied with computers) proclaims that the debate over handwriting is finally over -- all assignments must be keyboarded. You can mourn the passing of handwriting if you must; the kids certainly won't. If they are writing better and more detailed papers, yes, there has been progress.

But new technology still faces a great deal of resistance. Today, even in many schools with computers, Luddite administrators (and even Luddite technology administrators) lock down the machines, refusing to allow students to access email. Many also block instant messaging, cell phones, cell phone cameras, unfiltered Internet access, Wikipedia, and other potentially highly effective educational tools and technologies, to our kids' tremendous frustration. Even where technology has not been blocked, much of the digitized educational materials and records are just examples of using computers to collect old stuff (such as data or lesson plans) in old ways (by filing). There are some educational benefits, though, including allowing teachers to access data more easily and parents to do so more extensively.

Old Things in New Ways

Recently, a number of our schools (a very small number) have entered the stage of doing other old things in new ways. Now, it begins to get a little more interesting.

"I used to have to tell my students about phenomena, or have them read; now I can show them," says Jim Doane, a science teacher at Scarborough Middle School, in Scarborough, Maine. When we begin adding digital demonstrations through video and Flash animation, we are giving students new, better ways to get information.

In a growing number of simulations, ranging from the off-the-shelf SimCity and to Muzzy Lane's Making History to MIT's experimental Revolution and Supercharged, students -- even elementary school children -- can now manipulate whole virtual systems, from cities to countries to refineries, rather than just handling manipulatives.

In Education Simulations's Real Lives, children take on the persona of a peasant farmer in Bangladesh, a Brazilian factory worker, a police officer in Nigeria, a Polish computer operator, or a lawyer in the United States, among others, experiencing those lives based on real-world statistical data. Riverdeep's School Tycoon enables kids to build a school to their liking. With these tools, students act like scientists and innovators, rather than serve as empty vessels. They arrive at their own conclusions through controlled experimentation and what scientists call enlightened trial and error.

Still, our best teachers have always used interactive models for demonstrations, and students, like scientists and military planners, have been conducting simulations in sand, on paper, and in their heads for thousands of years. So, though some observers trumpet these uses of technology as great innovations, they are really still examples of doing old things in new ways.

But there are many more old things children are doing in new ways -- innovations they have invented or adopted as their preferred method of behavior -- that have not yet made their way into our schools. These include buying school materials (clothes, supplies, and even homework) on eBay and the Internet; exchanging music on P2P sites; building games with modding (modifying) tools; setting up meetings and dates online; posting personal information and creations for others to check out; meeting people through cell phones; building libraries of music and movies; working together in self-formed teams in multiplayer online role-playing games; creating and using online reputation systems; peer rating of comments; online gaming; screen saver analysis; photoblogging; programming; exploring; and even transgressing and testing social norms.

An important question is, How many of these new ways will ever be integrated into our instruction -- or even understood by educators? If we want to move the useful adoption of technology forward, it is crucial for educators to learn to listen, to observe, to ask, and to try all the new methods their students have already figured out, and do so regularly.

Two big factors stand in the way of our making more and faster progress in technology adoption in our schools. One of these is technological, the other social.

The Big Tech Barrier: One-to-One

The missing technological element is true one-to-one computing, in which each student has a device he or she can work on, keep, customize, and take home. For true technological advance to occur, the computers must be personal to each learner. When used properly and well for education, these computers become extensions of the students' personal self and brain. They must have each student's stuff and each student's style all over them (in case you haven't noticed, kids love to customize and make technology personal), and that is something sharing just doesn't allow. Any ratio that involves sharing computers -- even two kids to a computer -- will delay the technology revolution from happening. (Go to Project Inkwell's Web site for more information about one-to-one computing.)

Many groups are working on solutions to the one-to-one problem, and this approach is being implemented in several places, including Maine; Vail, Arizona; Florida's Broward County Schools; and the Lemon Grove School District, in Lemon Grove, California. Those who cite cost as a barrier to implementing one-to-one computing should know that the prices of these devices, as with all technology, are falling dramatically. Although the expense is often estimated at $500 to $1,000 per unit, this year, according to longtime computer visionary Nicholas Negroponte, we will see a basic laptop computer for roughly $100.

The Social Barrier: Digital Immigrants

A second key barrier to technological adoption is more challenging. Schools (which really means the teachers and administrators) famously resist change. Though some observers, including multiple-intelligences guru Howard Gardner, point to schools as the "conservators" of our culture, and therefore instinctively conservative in what they do, the resistance comes more from the fact that our public school system has evolved an extremely delicate balance between many sets of pressures -- political, parental, social, organizational, supervisory, and financial -- that any technological change is bound to disrupt. For example, such shifting certainly initially means more work and pressure on educators, who already feel overburdened.

In the past, the pressure against disruption has always been stronger than the pressure for change. So, as new technologies -- from radio to television, from telephones to cell phones, from cameras to video cams, or even Wikipedia -- have come down the pike, American public schools have fearfully stood ready to exclude them. Change hasn't happened.

But resisting today's digital technology will be truly lethal to our children's education. They live in an incredibly fast-moving world significantly different than the one we grew up in. The number-one technology request of today's students is to have email and instant messaging always available and part of school. They not only need things faster than their teachers are used to providing them, they also have many other new learning needs as well, such as random access to information and multiple data streams.

These "digital natives" are born into digital technology. Conversely, their teachers (and all older adults) are "digital immigrants." Having learned about digital technology later in life, digital immigrants retain their predigital "accents" -- such as, thinking that virtual relationships (those that exist only online) are somehow less real or important than face-to-face ones. Such outmoded perspectives are serious barriers to our students' 21st-century progress.

Many schools still ban new digital technologies, such as cell phones and Wikipedia. Even when schools do try to move forward, they often face antitechnology pressure from parents demanding that schools go back to basics. Many teachers, under pressure from all sides, are often so afraid to experiment and to trust their kids with technology that they demand extensive training before they will try anything new. All these factors impede even the many schools trying to change.

New Problems, New Solutions

With very few exceptions, our schools have not been physically designed for computers. Much time in our schools' 45-minute instructional periods is often wasted in computer setup and shutdown. Teachers are often unsure about how to integrate technology in their lesson plans and, often, administrators have little, if any, guidance to give them. In many places where technology could liberate teachers most, such as automatic grading of homework and tests, automation has been neglected. Adding digital technology is generally disruptive to what schools and teachers do, and the pressure of high-stakes testing only exacerbates this problem.

How, then, do we move forward?

First, consult the students. They are far ahead of their educators in terms of taking advantage of digital technology and using it to their advantage. We cannot, no matter how hard we try or how smart we are (or think we are), invent the future education of our children for them. The only way to move forward effectively is to combine what they know about technology with what we know and require about education. Sadly, in most cases, no one asks for their opinion. I go to conference after conference on school technology, and nary a student is in sight. I do hope that, after having pointed this situation out a hundred times or so, I will find that it is starting to change. Students will have to help, and we will have to think harder about how to make this happen.

New Things in New Ways

For the digital age, we need new curricula, new organization, new architecture, new teaching, new student assessments, new parental connections, new administration procedures, and many other elements. Some people suggest using emerging models from business -- but these, for the most part, don't apply. Others suggest trying to change school size -- but this will not help much if we are still doing the wrong things, only in smaller spaces.

What we're talking about is invention -- new things in new ways. Change is the order of the day in our kids' 21st-century lives. It ought to be the order of the day in their schools as well. Not only would students welcome it, they will soon demand it. Angus King, the former governor of Maine who pushed for one-to-one computing in that state's schools, recently suggested our kids "should sue us" for better education. I suggest that every lesson plan, every class, every school, every school district, and every state ought to try something new and then report to all of us what works and what doesn't; after all, we do have the Internet.

Some people will no doubt worry that, with all this experimentation, our children's education will be hurt. "When will we have time for the curriculum," they will ask, "and for all the standardized testing being mandated?" If we really offered our children some great future-oriented content (such as, for example, that they could learn about nanotechnology, bioethics, genetic medicine, and neuroscience in neat interactive ways from real experts), and they could develop their skills in programming, knowledge filtering, using their connectivity, and maximizing their hardware, and that they could do so with cutting-edge, powerful, miniaturized, customizable, and one-to-one technology, I bet they would complete the "standard" curriculum in half the time it now takes, with high test scores all around. To get everyone to the good stuff, the faster kids would work with and pull up the ones who were behind.

In other words, if we truly offer our kids an Edutopia worth having, I believe our students will work as hard as they can to get there.

So, let's not just adopt technology into our schools. Let's adapt it, push it, pull it, iterate with it, experiment with it, test it, and redo it, until we reach the point where we and our kids truly feel we've done our very best. Then, let's push it and pull it some more. And let's do it quickly, so the 22nd century doesn't catch us by surprise with too much of our work undone.

A big effort? Absolutely. But our kids deserve no less.

Marc Prensky, founder and CEO of Games2train, is a speaker, writer, consultant, and game designer. He is the author of Digital Game-Based Learning and the upcoming Don't Bother Me, Mom, I'm Learning.

Comments (145)Sign in or register to postSubscribe to comments via RSS

Elizabeth Hulswit-Green's picture

I would like to read the research that supports the fact that, "students who write on a computer turn in longer and higher-quality assignments than those who compose by hand." It makes sense to me, especially for students with ADHD and other learning disabilities who struggle with writing legibly and maintaining a flow of ideas when expressing their thoughts. Is there scientifically-based evidence that composing on a computer enhances creative expression or organization of thoughts? I guess some of that would depend on the computer operation proficiency, which the article supports is much more developed in students than
older adults because they are digital natives. To the point of blocking instant messaging, cell phones, cameras and internet access, it is stated in our district's student handbook that this technology is considered a distraction from learning. Interesting how differently the author views these tools of technology. I don't believe restricting the use during school would classify our administrators as Luddites.

The thought occurred to me, as I read this article, that integrating technology into the classroom may be viewed by some teachers as a paradigm shift in education because the current approach encourages sameness among students. Are we training students to think that we must all approach a problem in the same way, respond the same way? Integrating digital resources and web learning counters all of that by encouraging individual expression, unique perspectives, and individualistic problem solving.

Jill Nobles's picture

I think the idea that there are 4 ways of integrating/adopting technology is a joke and a gross generalization. I would love to see some statistics supporting such a closed perspective. There are too many variations of schools, funding sources, educational perspectives, educational priorities, and pedagogical methods to lump them all together as using 1 of those 4 methods to adopt technology. I do agree with the examples of the 4 methods, however I think that the lack of implementation of technology is dependant on more than laziness, fear or lack of interest. Reading through other comments on this article, I read someone's comment that said they "spend more time on a computer than they
care to admit"... I wonder when computers got such a bad rapport that someone is ashamed of using them. Do the
geniuses of the world feel the same way? Are the MIT physics students who study robotics feeling ashamed that they
are creating computers that simulate human characteristics (& using computers to do it)? Do Harvard medical students feel ashamed that they use thier iPhones to look up medical diagnostics because they can't memorize the
entire Merck manual? Do architects feel ashamed because they have to use software to make blueprints & drawings
in order to expedite the process? Why should educators feel ashamed? Computers are a vital educational tool that
the brightest and smartest Americans use on a daily basis.

Roberta Bibeault's picture

A chicken in every pot and a lap top on every desk. Technology changes so swiftly that to keep up to date on every latest new idea would be a full time job for any IT person. It is the reason we must use technology in education. When these students graduate, they must be ready to utilize what is current. Blocking the use of cell phones and texting during classes is not a bad idea. This generation or children and young adults are distracted by all their choices of technology. Using the right technology for the right situation is important. Training the educators to use the technology is lacking, the older educators are depending on their newer staff members to help. You will always have your innovators and your laggards, however the majority of your educators and parents want to do what is best for their children and their futures.

C.K.'s picture

In all reality technology is about setting up a convient bridge between hopes and dreams--the hope to archieve something and the dream to do it faster, quicker, and more efficient. But if the dependence of education is technology, then what do we do when it fails? Generally, it is well known that our students already hate reading as it is. The more we infuse technology as a means of education the more we reinforce the already negative connotations with reading. And if you think they're are going to pick up an e-reader as an alternative to book, then good luck getting them to choose that over Facebook,MySpace,XBox, etc.

Stelamaris's picture

According to Marc Prensky we have major changes to face in this digital age but the most important is related to invention - new things in new ways. I couldn't agree more.

Suzanna's picture

Great article! It's true that we need to do new things in new ways. But let's bear in mind that we need our students in order to accomplish such challenge. In order words, we have to get them involved in the process.

mompeapod's picture
mompeapod
parent, member support organization,retired critical care nurse

In your essay you mention architecture, "our schools have not been physically designed for computers" "For the digital age, we need new curricula, new organization, new architecture" and you proceed to touch on reducing the classroom size. What if the proposal is no classrooms? And the doubling of the student body? Our school district has proposed eliminating one high school and combining the student body into a predominantly "wall-less" building. Instead of a classroom there would be terraced areas where groups may hold a class wherever the space moves them. This is under the premise that discussion should occur when the students feel the time is right to stop for a more extensive examination of the subject. Walls are said to impede thought and stifle discourse. This comes from the organization that is to construct such a building.

I am not an educator, I am a parent of older children out of the district, but I wonder of the students that need quiet and space. Have any of you taught in such a proposed open space? This issue of the consolidation of schools has been defeated at the ballot 3 times. I want to educate myself as much as I can so I can vote with informed support for my decision. I don't know if I am allowed to name the organization that gives much information to support it's educational theories. It is FNI. Their buildings and educational premise is such a departure from the current that it requires reeducation of the teachers who will staff their structure. Help me to make an informed decision. Thank-you.

Karen's picture

What a wonderful article.
Yes, school districts are so behind with technology.
I do believe that it is the digital immigrants that do not welcome change in our curricula.
We digital immigrants are afraid of what is around the corner. We are so protective of our children, me being one of them.
I want to know what my children are doing on the internet, but on the flip side of that.
I know my children.
Though I can not know every move they make, I do have a pretty good idea of what they are up too concerning technology.
We are constantly communicating as a family unit to help foster trust and confidence.
I feel very strongly in the effort to ask the students what they want. Adults have a tendency to always know what is best for all children all the time. We can loose sight of what is really important to them.
Now that I am older, I want to embrace technology, welcome it with open arms and not ignore it in hopes it goes away.

Kacie's picture

I am only able to speak about my personal experiences as an observer in the classroom. I am dumbfounded by how truly behind in the times my school district is. It is really fascinating and exciting to see what other schools are learning while using technology based programs. I find the article quite realistic with the ways schools are lacking with technology, and what is preventing it from becoming any better. The specific part about social barriers is very true.

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